(in fine, Telework)
Hardware and technology
Wired. Internal. External. Voice, video, data.
Physical shelter, informational shelter. After work and transport, sleep
Home is the "abode prothesis", of which possession confirms arrival to the adult state. One does not exist fully without a home, ints own, beacon and shelter (repère et repaire) for oneself as for all others and for the society. It is the basis for the dialectics shelter/hunting, rest/adventure.
My home, beacon and shelter
The beacon function transposes itself in the informational world. The "domicile fixe", address for taxes and police, for telephone and welfar (which in France keeps the birthplace in its national number), for the PostOfffice... this address is integrated in part of the borne protheses : papers, business cards, check books, credit cards, etc.
Progress in electronic media could permit a suppressin of this geographical reference. An ad hoc code could be enough to connect the individual to the social body, as in portable phones, emails and GPS.
We could, then, live physically in a nomadic mood and at the same time remain accessible to the information network. There are here new markets, information beacons and communication tools, more or less able to be boarded. The first potential customers go from solo sailors to itinerant entertainers, encompassing persones in holidays and technicians roaming under contract. Satellite develpment will foster these products ans services, freeing us from the fixed telephone line and, partly, from frequency saturation.
A large part of the domestic information system transposes easily to automobiles, camping cars, boats and ships, and any mobile "home".
But the nomadic vocation remains exceptional, since its demands a lot of "detachment" form the life environment, from the "terroir". "J'aurais jamais dû m'éloigner de mon arbre", moans the French singer Brassens. We live not easily "sans domicile fixe". Moreover, the fact that both partners ion the couple have their jobs makes mobility still more difficults that it was somes decades ago. Then, the major part of home information systems aims to a rather traditional "home".
Actually, it seems that we cannot go very far from the basic home models. The tower as workplace, OK. But as home, it reinforces nostalgy for the individual cottage. And information technologies have to be discreet here : phone wires and antennas are progressively hidden, in order to clean the "natural" patterns of our windows, roofs, and streets.
Nevertheless, demographic growh, life level enhancement and powerful communication and computing means create new information needs at home.
My home, where I can be naked
Home is also the place where I let out my hat, my coat and my town shoes, I put back the umbrella in its basket, as well as the professionally serious mask. One "baisse s garde". No great man for his valet. Home is the vast prothesis where I can get rid of other protheses.
This role is differenciated, has several degrees, from the entrance and the common living room up to the complete nudity of the marital bed and bathroom.
To play that role, home is rigged with a lot of massic and energetic devices. A good house is in stone and concrete, rock based, with solid foundations and an enclosure around the garden or the common scales. It ensures "le clos et le couvert", protects from excessive cold and heat, from intrusions of any kind (stealers, undesired persons, undesired animals).
This passive insulation is completed by active organs for stabilization and regulation : heath, air conditioned, airing, wetting.
The first role of domestic information tools is to enchance the
performance and reduce the costs of physical protection :
- energy management (principally, in Europe, heating aire and water)
- intrusion and fire protection
But even this shelter function becomes more and more informational. Home is the domain of intimacy, of personal life. The core of Orwell's 1984 is the TV camera in every room, from which Big Brother is watching for you. And the newkork growth calls for new protecion forms against invasion by spam, phone, TV, etc.
Insulate is juste the negabive aspect. We must look for a
communication optimum, as we look for a ambient temperature optimum.
Monitor information flows as thermal flows. But :
- as for temperature, information optimum may vary with habits, age, group size, economic conditions ;
- an informational optimum may not be reduced to one parameter which would be read as a thermometer (a vast issue)
it calls for information systems more active than radio and TV sets ; yet, magnetoscope and TV chain diversification widen the field, foster more controlled attitudes towards the media. But the domestic computer will be a core component to monitor the whole.
Self and protheses maintenance
At home, also one "restaures" oneself in all the acceptions of the term. TGHe shelter is the final point of an adventure, and the starting point for the one in prepration. "Se refairfe". Fix the protheses. Eat, sleemp, some gym. Fix the clothes, grease he car, reload the batteries, prepare the attaché case and all "cases". Here also, one primary role of information systgem is to facilitate and make easier the traditional maintenance.
All this is afforded by the shelter function. With a growing stress on informational maintenance. Meditate, read (comics, newspapers, entertainment of work book), sort ones papers or library, tape and disck library, computer directories. A market (to be, even in 2007) : methods and tools for auto-organization.
As for meals, computers has never go very par beyond caricature. As a recipe for four persons applied to three and saying : "take three fourthes of an egg...". But it could guide the buyings, and foster telemarketing. Help apply diet and market prices, plus the tastes and health issues of everybody in the house, plus some random to introduce fantasy... and reduce a tedious daily chore of the home master : meal menus !
As for medicine, computer does little at home (in 2007 as well as in the 1980's, when I wrote the first verion of this text. It promises much. But it appears as well as a threatn replacing the doctor. with error risks and the kind of mistakes of the medical dictionary in the 30's. And possibly some sort of addiction. But let's not forget the positive sides. Let us begin with a description of the basic tools.
1. Diagnosis. You don't fill well. A little fever, light headache. Some exchanges with the machine may give a first orientation, recommend or dissuade to call for the MD. Or,at the other extreme, calof l him immeidately and automaticall by mal, in particular for aged persons and cardiopaths. The system stores the data, and updates the personal health card.
2. Consultancy. Avoid or cure illness is just a minimum. The true aim is to be and feel fit. An ad hoc expert systam may give, day after day, ad hor advices. With possibly some biorythms, astrlology or relition for believers. A dietetic part, connected to the general system of family menus.
3. Gym coach. This boring but useful activity could be guided, on a personal basis, by a program. And it is easy to program it on a home computer.
4. Severe illness monitoring. As in the intensive care department of hospitals, but a version "day hospital".
The protheses themselves must be maintained. Classical prothses with the electronic sewing machine. But mainly informational prothesis. Telemaintenance plus local fixing. And reciprocal updating of borne protheses.
Home, nest to reproduce oneself
Giving life, transmit the genetic message we received from past generations has something very intimate. (Why, anyway). Delicate combining, demanding tha the man introduces his code in the deepest part of the woman. Neste shells are home, room, bed, bellies. For an essentially informational activity.
Protection of this act againts the predators or the original bush, against the eyes of everybody else, and evel of the best friends. Shall we make love otherwise in the informational home ? We bet that no, for the essential. But it is a manor paradox. We ask here for more liberty ! Love and liberty are both best friends and worst foes.
In the service of pleasure
This liberty goes with a radical separation of the two functions of physical love : pleasure and procreation. Then, in practice, by procreation inhibition, since our sexual desire go largely beyond the genetic nees of the speciels, even if we limit ourselves to the "legitimate" pleasures (at least : two consenting adults).
That is not new, has noted for instance by Desmond Morris : man is not only the biggest brain among animals, but also with the biggest sex (related to its weigh).
A radical solution consists in replacing the human partner by a more or less material, more or less informational ersatz. That also dates back to antiquity (book of J. Cohen). But with the last decades, with the explosion of erotic litterature and video, the phenomenon takes off. And is more and more socially accepted.
Which place can take, finally, this transfer to information of erotic pleasure ? It has its limits. At least is it better than prostituion proper, as less enslaving for the film sujects.. But it will not replace love fully made with a generous and gifted partner. So it is.
Nota. The virginity path remains an vocation of exception, but retainsits value, as an extreme liberation form, even out of the catholic religion. Here, sublimation is not into the informational world, but in another kind of transcendance (?)
There are other transfer modes. Without a conscious choice, probably, a lot of couple prefer a base-ball match or a TV soap... as it was poved by the baby-boom wich happend nine monts after a TV breakdown in New-York.
Without going up to the transfer, information may elaborate te divergence between pleasure and procration. Indeed, it adds itself to the mechanical and chemical contraceptive means. The "nature" partisans in this domain (the Catholic Church to begin with) based (in the 70's) hopes on a better understanding of women fecundity. Something like an effective Ogino method. But this track is demanding, in any case
Thre remains the soloution, ultime and traumatic, of abortion.
But in formation may also contribute to pleasure enhancement. The erotic film looked at by both partners in the couple may prelude to real love macking. Sex information using experimental system, with a computed and statistical base. The best known case is the "Master and Johnsons" report in the USA. It has prevented errors and lead to more efficient ways, and more gender equitable. The medical aspects of the domotic system could offer some advice on the best moments to make love. We can even dream of a real time use of computer, with reciprocal information of parters about the excitation level or the other one That could defreeze some inibitions and help to fly still more happilty to the seventh heaven.
But, in fact, editing these lines in 2007, I am stuck by the low practical contibution of computer and digital techniques into this field. (As well in a lot of cooperative works, but that would call for a specific study about the hopes and limitations of "groupware").
In the service of fertility
Fecundity does not, at that, lose of its importance for some States, which want to keep high their military human potention. And evidently also for a lot of men, women and couples who desire procreation more than anything else.
Here, progress brings more and more distance between procreation and the physical processes of coit and pregnancy. At the limit, whe should be able to build totally the genetic chain, from gene combination up to the baby birth, and push it further up into the adult stage. Reproducion could then become a purely "immaterial" process, at least for father and mother body. Procreating would be the scripting of a new genetic combination on some screen, then automated devices would transform it into a human being
It that possible ? Or is it unavoidable ? We wo every year on this way. If human is the "willed" paradigm, we would then reach the true parentship. Otherwis, the gate remains open to all sorts of nightmares, as nazi eugenism or the genetic factories of A brave new World (Aldous Huxley).
An open question : whereupto can go voluntarism in parentship ? Presently, we can :
- choose our parter : but nothing warrants than the child we
resemble him/her (and ourselves) very much,
- choose the number of children, and thei birthdate, with non null success probability ; this at least will determine the astrological sign of the baby and the global family structure (one child family, several children, age distribution more or less extended).
That is not much ! Sex will probably be determined soon. And prenatal exam let a choice by abortion..
In any case, the parentship by itself appears as so serious a responsibility that some people prefer abstain, or submit themselves to random. Or to "Providence" This word appears risible (in the 80's), and even meaningless (in the 2000's), but, faced to the problem of life transmission, which of every evidence transcnd us, a place let to transcendance, be it called God or not, is perhaps a radical necessisy, moral demand.
The right way goes something in between irresponibility and absolute voluntarism. Remain to be set as well he finalities (how many children to tave, is there an optimal dimension to the French Nation, for Europe, for Manking ?) as the range of legitime ways. Few people to day refuse a minimum of contraceptive practices, and everybody condemns infanticide. In between extends the vast diversity of more or less late abortion and active contraception.
This limit, which is to be more precisely defined, is a major case where is blocked computer ethics.
And this management of life throws up to its complement, death management.
Death is a dramatic event, bearing on the whole life as an absolute necessity (though, since the 2000's, it is no longer a dogma). Here we have no power at all.
Thou shall not kill. Neither other human beings, nor yourself through suicide. Death penalty suppression in occidental countries is a form of finalization in this absolute quest of the human paradigm. But, at the same epoch, the decision to give (or give oneself) death appears as a new need, if not a new moral demand.
Indeed, our technical ability to maintain life well beyond the
natural limits end up in the unhuman. It is clear in some cases :
- brain death, with total loss not only of conscience, but of any hope to recover it,
- premature babies, or severely crippled children unable to live without intensive care and suffering
- very aged persons and uncurable illness, beyond a degenrescency level.
Is therapeutical fierceness a human sentiment ? Nature would give their end to all these semi-deads. But is this a sufficent reason ? In fact, we are at the end forced to make the decisions Sometimes for resource limits (the medical equipment is scarce, the patients must be selected). Or, more deeply, we have to word a new definition of death (flat encephalogram, for instance).
The decision to kill, more and more often undodgeable, results out of an objective "computation", economial or medical, with a lot of analyses and, more and more, a profusion of screens, computers at every level and rational management. At the limit, could we transfert this heavy responsibility to a machine ? And is not the judiciary apparatus a sort of machine, even if we say that the judge, or jury, decides "en son âme et conscience" ,
This death management outstands widely the family frame. Anyway, for a long time, the burial certificate has has to be deliverd by a patented authority, both to protect agains crime as to discharge the familiy of the death decision
Life and death management, as well for the implied values as for the technologies and competences they demand, remains a contact point between home and State. But we still have to take our responsibilities, at a level or another one, as relative or as citizen.
Education, extension of fecundity
From birth, and more and more neatly with the years, the transmission of genetic code properly lets place to a less physical and more explicity informational and wilful transmission : education Even the value transfer may be described in information terms. In the Freud lineage, for instance Transactional analysis talks abou script and scenarios that the individual will try, all his life long, to realize (Berne).
Century after century, this transfer is more and more mediated through informational tools Yesterday, the book. Today, TV, Internet and paedagodical uses of computing and networks. This intrusion of external authorities in the process of cultural message transmission is not new. It starts in the most primitive societies But electonics gives a new dimension to this new references, which complement if not replace replace the teacher, priest or uncle of yesterday.
Computers, replacing the parents for life transmission, could replace them also for education, at least for teaching, with CAL (computer aided learning), which could become a big market (but, in the 2000's, it is still more a hope than a reality).
Symmetrically, the need to teach, to educate (as well as to breed) could te transferred on machine, and specially on software. It is one of the bonuyses of Logo (Seymour Papert) : « to program » become « teach the tortoise to something ». The home computer will be a sort of pleasure for this reason, and this will grow with its behaviour riches (so did I thougt in the 1980's).
For J. Cohen, that is in the line of Pygmalion myth (that Antiquity scupltor who aimed to give life to its works . Turckle speaks of « second self »).
Primary information about people who lived. Genealogical tree. Will remain of value : people (at some moment of their life), look for their roots.
This is part of «projectd gransmission ». My project in breeding is to transmit my genes, but also my family line. This has more or less importance according to persons, but sometimes takes the first place : « Who was my father ?«
One life and culture transmitted, the parents conclude their relay rôle with the materiul patrimony transmission. Up to now, informational goods are a negligible part, more symbolic that really of matter : a phot album, some old letters.. nothing which matters, compared to furniture, stock portfolio, and evidently real estate,which stil keeps its strong symbolic load.
Three features prevent informational products getting a
significant part in the transmissible patrimony :
- it is avalaible in small quantity, would it be for space and room availability in family houses ; few people may keep on an important library,
- information ages rapidly, as well for the content as for the media (color degradation, and so more, formats : in 2000, who can show a 9,5mm fillm ?
- information stored by one person has a very individual characteristics, centered on souvenirs, personal interests ; generally, they wont be shared by the heirs ; and is rarely of commercial interest.
The situation could change with high density/low cost of storage (optical disk, then CD, then DVD...), format transfer made more easy, emergence of large data funds of some general interest. But the competition of libraries and public networks will limit the extention of these private bases. And so more as copy and downloading become rapide, quick and easy.
At the end of the day, the informational family patrimony can become valuable only if it takes a commercial value in the frame of some familial operation, for instance, important document libraries on a general interest subject. Or if somebody in the family is a star, of course. Some contracition will remain between an « absolute », communautaray value of the heritage, irreducdtible to commercial value, and the necssity to giv it some commercial value, possibly through a sale of the fund. As for an old family house or estate, or the ancestral castle.
In fact, my experience around the 2000's is that family documentation is perhaps more a burden than a bonus for a family, with bunches of papers, photographs and cassettes to be sorted when a parent dies !
What to store ? What is precious ? Very personal documents, unique documents (in particular rare and beautiful books), some personal diaries, and photographs if they are well documented
Family, a social group
. . . . . . . . .
Informational budget icono 258.
Nessary and contradictory security
Is integrated domotics threat or solution when security is the
It certainly is a threat :
- integration goes with interdependence between all the devices and processes of the house ; then a minor incident may result in a catastrophe
- being elctdonic, it depends on the electric feeding of thee house, and its irregularities
- its complexity and abstract nature may be disturbing, in particular in alarm, stress or tiredness situations.
It is a protection :
- domotics has sophisticated processes and «smart » in every configuration
- domotics keeps constantly updated data of thouse evolution ; it monitors full time, through the multitude of devices, energy flows
- domotics may use many complementary data, compare the present configuration to standard values and evolutions, use several devices for a same function
Conclusion: domotic systems building must be prudent We can yet
propose several design principles
- any fault in the global system will fold back down to separate and easier operating modes for each device or devices group
- the state of the system at time fault will be stored, to ease diagnosis and preventive measures for the future
- major functions must remain operational when electric mains misses ; that demands at least a backup battery for several hours
- some major functions must be duplicates
alarm issues :
- basic facts, more or les sophisticated sensors, time, explicit
declarations (I am here, Johnis here), authentifying devices
- rules use (like an expert system), with progressive reactions (soft internatl message, urgent internal message, external calls) and reaction adapted to the type and level of the threats
- keep traces, dashboard and records
5. A new architecture
We can deal with domotics as with a passive system, a mere net connecting various devices. A little as is telephone. But important profits will come only if we give is some positive "activity". Each household will puhs mor or less fac this dynamics, which sould always remain adapted to the social group.
This machine activity perturbs us a little. What if that machine became mad ? Or owerpowered us ? (See "I robot", of Asimov). And another fear will emerge if and when we will use high level domotics : its global span over time and space, arond us, and with largely autonomous behaviours. A smart house, even more an "intelligent hause" is something lide a big living animal which shelters us in its chest Some humans will enjoy it, who will feel it as a new kind of maternal womb. But others will hate that castrating mother !
It is not so new, indeed, but more a development of the present (and past) house. Country poets did not fail to celebrate the "live" house, wiht its warm hearth, its creaking woods, its whistling roofs under whe wind, its friendly flowing of rain guided by gutters, its heartbeating grandfather clock.
Automata swarm in the house of today, starting and stopping according to their fancy : refrigerator and freezer, washing machine and dishwasher, without forgetting the clocks. As for the central heating or air conditioner, it gives a strong image of this all encompassing domotics.
Then we can foresse that comparatively global domotics will gain ground, but not without restraints ! (And in 2007, 20 years after a first version of this text, things have not much changed !)
It is too early to describe the "life" that we shall insufflate into our houses, ant the part of our own character they will bear. This transfer seems much more interesting than mere decoration. A sort of new architecture, or system design, that we will build, with its languages and behaviors, beyond concrete, paints, and vintage furniture.
home dematerialization ; just the opposite to the Caves of steel
by Asimov. or else... much steel and a lot of dura mater inside
soft home ; white/gray whic take life only when animated by the IS (based in the material home)
standards so ease the transfers (unless AI facilite adaptations).
Space creation. Ambiant, general regulation.
Objects : light, sound, robots, haptics
At the same time dream and reality
Ego modification and amplification
Man/machine roles balancing
The house must talk to me. That requires the definition of a
langauge (R2D2 style in Starwars ?). With different languages
according to dwellers : the owner, the home master, the other ones,
hosts, children, intruders...
With a reduction, or at least of change of role for physical objects.
The domotic space gets more and more soft, and sofware. Like
office with office automation.
Standards housing (materially) and software personalization.
6 The home office and telecommuting
Notion of family/personal corporation
Tools and means brought by computers and telecommunications. A sofware for the family corporation, since its creation up to its liquidation, including accounting, and profit sharing inside the family. A particular case of orgware.
7. The personal information system (PIS, personet)
any stage, any state of the PIL is frustrating, you always lack
something, hard, soft, .... or fitness
thinking is not a purely internal activity.a thought if not express does not exist (Bouveresse?)
white empty room ? paper saturated, computers (Kung Office), or a more mastered electronic environment?
In PIS, until now, IT have changed:
-incoming news, through TV, radio, press
-dialogue over telephone
Let us try a taxonomy of PIS
conscience extended field
a news: extending/unbalancing the existing balance of the
central loops, interest
observe people: how do they organise their Conscience Fields
(CF). time stuctures. individual room structure
One of the basic meanings of "bureautique".
More importante than "office"
Who pays for. Parents, corporation, the individual.
The PIS as a way to navigate in a rapidly changing world. A information space vessel, so to say.
The PIS as a way to organize liberty. Restrict if from my own will. Of from State/group regulations for public orders. with special items accordint to age (youth, very old), illness, criminality and so on. Here, relation between PIS and physical world are important.
PIS and THL.
Conflict, dialectics, alliances
language of one ship, of other ships. exchanges from hypertext to hyperlanguage
just the opposite of novlanguage in Orwell
an "object" is an information that I can transfer without (internal) change from one trip to another then the trip becomes the measure of everything. another wayu of talking about groupware
PIS and loyalty to corporation
what do say the Japanese?
the individual shares a larger part of the corporation data and communication resources
Project of a control box, around 1983 (I had the Commodore system)
Basic control Unit
2 12 V distribution + ground
1 Logic ground
5 Genral, on/of funciotns
panic : musts cut the +12 V battery,
restore the normal foncitons
all others : on pust muust change the state
Whatever be the organic/technical solutions
- all accesses to the system (other than master interventions by PB°
. or very simple, natural, eg a swithc in the staircaie to put on and of the lights heure
. or absolutely standard in the whole home, and even in this case, very simple
- telephone (PTT) must be kept out of the system anc accessed ontly by regular sets
- a vevy apparent panic button switching out all the system and restoring it to the hormal mains with a minimum of basic devices : sme ligths; general hetating (...)
- individually accessed devices on group of devices identified clearly and put on/off by flip/flop ordres with signal lights indicating id on or off.
- general vasement comand, includinb workhop, all lights, proto devices, electronic laba
- basement heating + on light (simulation)
- basement sono
- hotwater appartus
- dish washer
- stair case (and floor ? ) lights
- temperture ordering
- sono distribution
See also the program listings of my home monitor on Commodore.
224. Working at home or living in the office. Murray Turoff and Starr Roxanne
Hiltz. Ifip 83. Télétravail. Humain réseau
225. Le télétravail. Datafrance. 15/9/83
245. Le télétravail. premier bilan. Elsbeth Monod et Gérard Métayer. CI 82.
Reporté dans 2513
246. Le télétravail. B. Bravet et J. Voge. Bureautique AFcet Sicob 81. Humain
732. Télémac. Dessins de locaux à Chatillon pour télétravail. ergonomie
1118. Société post-industrielle et industri domestique, le télétravail. Gérard
Métayer, Geste. Colloque CSTB 1982.
2098. Commute. Earthquake helps define the future. Télétravail. IHT vers fin 89
2165. Whe Workers Still Prefer Office to Home Screen. Sherry Buchanan. IHT jan
2513. Dossier regroupant différents docs. Le télétravail, problème d'organisa-
tion du travail ou d'expérimentation sociale. In Idate, L'expérimentation
télématique, Actes des 4eme journées internationales.
Bulletin de l'Idate, oct 1982.
2513/1/ Prendre ses distances avec le travail. Réussir. L'Express 22/11/90.
Firmes extending virtual nets to employee's homes. IDG News Sevice 8/1/91.
- les vendeurs à domicile de Philips éclairage ont des outils pour tr
availler à la maison.
- consultants travaillant en réseau. témoignage MT Doin LMI 21/9/87
=2513.2. Infoworld 26/11/90
3223. Télétravail. Divers doc. après 5/92
=5077.12/12/93-Télétravail. La voie contractuelle. Les Echos 9/12/93
5462/1. Le télétravail, une nouvelle manière de travailler. Datafrance, 15/9/83
=5462/2. Status report on European Telework. Document CEE DG XIII. 1997
=Télétravail. Avec adresses de sites web. LMI 20/11/98
5564. Télétravail. Mythes et réalités économiques. Journée Afcet 21/4/89
=5784. Le télétravailleur est rarement salarié. Expetises 2/200
No 5. Télétravail: l'entreprise presque à domicile. L'expérience de la DGT de Cannes. 9/3/81
No 467. Délocalisation. Les espoirs renouvelés du télétravail. 9/9/91
No 506 Le télétravail. Les entreprises françaises restent frileuses. 22/6/92.
No 531. Organisation. le télétravail enfin crédible. 8/2/93. Quant les télécommunications riment avec aménagement du territoire. Michaël Flasch, concepteur de structures en bois, ICS Bois à Pesey-Nancroix; Jean-Paul Chartier MC3, centre de télétraduction de Lunéville. Aatena, télégestion; IBM France; Crédit Suisse.
No 550. Télétravail. La traduction, exemple type du tertaiire délcalisé. NCR. 21/6/93
No 710 La région Ile-de-France pousse le télétravail. 21/02/97
No 712 MVS et télétravail pour Exa. 07/03/97
No 741. Le télétravail ne décolle pas. 07/11/97
KORTE W.B., ROBINSON S. et STEINLE W.J. : Telework, present situation and future development of a new form of work organization. North Holland 1988. Télétravail
ROWE Franz (1993), Le télétravail peut-il être un outil pour l'aménagement du territoire ?, Métropoles et Aménagement du territoire, Université Paris-Dauphine, 12-13 Mai.
ROWE Franz (1993), Télécommuniquer dans trente ans:
incidences sur la mobilité, (avec
ADEME-DRAST-INRETS, Se déplacer au quotidien dans trente ans, pp.125-138.
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