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CAD. Computer aided design.
- Some images listed by Mireille Boris

Cadavre exquis. Wikipedia.

- Tools for that work (mainly on colors all along the production chain, from cameras to printers): DaVinci, Lustre.
- See aesthetics .

Calligraphy. See special notice.

Camera. The cheapest and most powerful tool of data capture. [Asziosmanoff].
- New cameras, high performance. A paper on On line WS.
- Algorithms to drive cameras: [Brinkmann], [Foley], [Faure-Walker], [Siarry], [Photoshop], [Open CV].
- Camera space: coordinate system associated with the camera [Ebert] p. 24.
- Camera lucida, oscura [Kemp].
- Programming examples Processing.
- 3D relief: see stereo.

Camescope. Now digital.

Canny. Filtering method [Bres],contour detection,[Cocquerez].

The human body canon according to VitruvIUS, the most famed among canons, inspiratorY of Da Vinci and many others. A kind of graphic digitization. .

Canon. See aesthetics, See [Elam] for a short and lively presentation.
- There were aesthetic canons in ancient Egypt. See [Panofsky], Pythagoras, the Roman architect [Vitruvius].
- [Funck-Hellet] (mainly in picture compositing), ant
- Le Modulor y Le Corbusier.
- Le code secret, La formule mystérieuse qui régit les arts, la nature et les sciences, by Priva Hemenway. Köln, Evergreen 2008.

- The painter's canvas.
- Programming class, in some languages as C++. See also [Photoshop].

- Name for uppercase letters.
- As stock, see Market.
- The capitalist world as a subject fort art, see Tactical Media (Rita Raley), chapter 3.

Capture. See expression.

Park Jae-Dong, in a communication at Siggraph Asia 2010, My New Philosophy of Caricature shows how computer graphics have changed the way of doing caricatures, and more generally how the non- photo-realistic rendering can "enrich the human life".

sens Thom
Cartography: the "map of meaning", a tentative graphical epistemological synthesis, by René Thom (unpublished as far as we know).

Cartography, mapmaking . See map, locative media.
< Visual Complexity. Mapping Patterns of Information. by Manuel Lima. Princeton Architectural Press 2011. Just beautiful drawings.

Map making may considered a form of art. It's digital from stratch, and more and more. Note:
- Maps are primarily utilitary objects. Some of them are really designed with artistic aims.
- Map design demands choces; a minima, show as ergonomically as possible the pertinent features of the map and its contents. This ergonomy leads to some treacheries with reality. In short, a kind of non-photo-realistic rendering.
- The need to show the altitudes has made mas somehow an ancestor of "3D".
- Colrs ant textures are intensively used for meaning (undergroud, administrative structures, etc.).
- Some major features see their side, their width at least, exaggerated, tyically the roads.
- Compared to a photography, a map has to be completed by data, textual (toponymy), iconic (symbols for a castle, a church, a capital city...). Artistic creativity is more at ease if there are comparatively few topographic data.
- Many examples of gamelike uses (or fun) in Dérives programmées [promenades assistées par ordinateur] by Karen O'Rourke, in [Lartigaud]

Some hints to maps or series of maps with some artistic (or other) merit:

A map from the Project NYTimes website.

- Are "ethnic" maps politicallly correct. See wikipedia on this issue.
- General reflections about maps on Serialmapper website.
- The "Business cartographers".
- They Rule. A graphic system showing how to use new media to show the relationships between soeieties. ByJosh On and FutureFarmers.
- Anything about geographic information systems (SIG), see >ikipedia.
- The 3D map as component of a global artistic work. See The mechanics of emotions by Maurice Benayoun.
- On a humorous mode, the "prejucice" maps mapping stereotypes
- The traditional "Cartes de Tendre" (of Tendre country, wrongly known as "Cartes du tendre").
- Claude Aschenbrenner. A specialist in map making. His blog.
- It would be interesting to know how are built the geographical data for robots (cruise missiles for instance).

Some philosophico-literary references:
- Tuning in Rorschach maps, by Will Pappenheimer. 13 pages in [Adams]
- "La ville dans sa carte et son portrait", in De la représentation. byLouis Marin. Seuil/Gallimard 1994
- "The map is not the terrigory", a motto of General Semantics developed by Alfred Korzybski
- La carte et le territoire, de Michel Houellebecq (Flammarion 2010) peut se lire comme un documentaire sur la vie d'un artiste numérique.

- A basic technic to generate fractals [Ebert].
- CSS: Cascading style sheet. A technique with HTML for web editing.

- Programming : Case develpment (software engineering method).
- Typography. Programs may be, or not, case sensitive. See for instance [Processing].

Caustic. Forms projected by a light passing through a transparent medium. May be generated procedurally.

Cave. Immersive room to project virtual reality. Costly. really useful? See immersion.

CD. Compact disc. Sold in public since 1982. The CD Rom as a material medium stays reliable some ten years. But the contents, to remain usable, must find the appropriate reading applications.
- Collection of CD-Rom "New Media" at Cornell University.
- Collection of artistic CD-Rom 1993-2000.
> <Compacts>. Oeuvres numériques sur CD-Rom. Digital works of Art on CD-Rom, directed by Bertrand Gauguet. Ecole régionale des beaux-arts, Université de Rennes, 1998.
- Yves Bernard, director of Imal (Brussels) has a collection of nearly 300 artist CDs.
- Author CD-Roms, see [Couchot 2003] pp 59-62 and Murray's Digital Baroque, mainly about CD-Rom works in the 1980's-1990's.
> I Photograph to Remember (1991), by Pedro Meyer, considered the author and [Vroege] as the first photographer to make use of a CD-Rom.

Cell, cellular. Cellular texturating is a form of procedural texturing. In [Ebert], Steven Worley shows strategies to use them, based on fractal noise. See also [Seul].


Center Some languages, for instance [Processing], offer this parameter to generate curves. .

agamThe graphic chain seen by e_formaction.

- Of characters, see string.
- Graphical : set of machines and processses beginning on the graphist workstation and ending on the user screen or printing press. Its inegration, see [Gonzalez].
- Freeman's: polygonal approximation. Pseudocode in [Cocquerez] p. 57.
- Markov's: the whole chapter VII of [Cocquerez] is dedicated to Markov's chain.

- For images, the four R, V, B and alpha channels: [Brinkmann], [Gonzalez], [Photoshop].
- For sound: Midi, DMX.
- Channels are also type of media. See the word in the transmedia context. "Content is hot, channels are not" ([Bernardo] p. 141).

Chaos. See [Berger-Lioret] p. 151.

1. In typography
< Coded character sets, history and development, by Charles Mackenzie, Addison Wesley 1980, about the evolution of codes from the origins up to 1980. Since the 1990's, the power of computers let use the Unicode (Wikipedia) standard, wtih 16 bits per character. It allows, in particular, the coding of ideographic oriental languages. - See [Foley] and [Knuth ].
- See typography.

2. For animation, games and interaction
- Tools for stage populating, see Donikian (for his Golaem company).
- A lot in Digital Storytelling. A creator's guide to interacdtive entertainment. [Miller, 2014].
- Character, a software product for animation. See Paris ACM Siggraph page
- Non player character is a sort of AI (Artificial intelligence).
< Avatars, personnages et acteurs virtuels, ed. by René Bourassa and Louise Poissant. Presses de l'Université du Québec, 2013. See its presenation.
< Character development and storytelling for games, by Lee Sheldon, Boston, Thomson course technology PTR, 20004.

3. In programming (code char ).
- may be synonym of digit. .
- A basic variable type, for instance in [Java].
- A group of some bits. At least 4, up to 8 (octet) or 16 (Unicode). The definition of the type differs according to the languages.

Chess. [Housez] p. 271.(about Duchamp).

Aesthetic surgegy: digital, or at least, quantitative. (Document by professor Benhamou).

- Distance between points, depending on their coordinates only. [Cocquerez] gives a definition. See also [Gonzalez]. 

Chirurgy. See surgery.

Choreography. See dance.

Chroma, chromaticity. See color.
- Programming: [Brinkmann], [Foley], [Gonzalez].

CIE . C"olor standard model. [Foley], [Gonzalez], [Java]. Wikipedia.

Cinema. - Our posts and references. See special notice.

Cinetic. See kinetic.

Archaos, French national center for circus arts. The digital illuminates body performances.

Circle. See [Foley], [Cocquerez] p. 45.
- Let's note that circularity is both positively and negatively valued (examples of French expressions):
. positive: "tourner rond", "mener rondement",
. negative: "tourner en mond", "mener en bourrique".

Circuit. In a graph, series of points of which origin and end coincide.

Circus. See performance, magic.
- On Spring 2015 will open Tiger World, combininf video-projections with real animals presentation (Sonovision Nov. 2014).
- Siteswap is a mathematic notation of jugbgling. Used for instance by Cie Parabole.
- The Cirque électrique. Same kind of inspiration as Cirque du Soleil, but a smaller enterprise.
- The Cirque du Soleil uses frequently digital effects in his shows.
- Archaos, Creac of Marseille.
< Archaos et le piège des images, by Katérina Flora. A chapter of 11 pages in [Picon-Vallin] pp.246-256. Mainly about Game Over (1996) . Not digital.
< La piste et les nouvelles technologies, l'exemple d'Archaos. in Art Press, Special issue, 20, 1999.

Cirrus. [Ebert] gives rendering techniques for this kind of clouds. .

An example of Siteswap.

Clamp, clamping. Anti-aliasing method, applicable to textures created by spectral synthesis [Ebert].

Class, classification.
- Application of classes in Roxame (with some code), see Roxame Classes
- For image processing [Bres] deals with them on several places , see also [Zomorodian], [Cocquerez]. A "classification" distributes the pixels into classes, i.e. subsets with a same property (any property of interest, for instance light/dark, blue/red/yellow dominance...). Such a class does not consitute a connected subset, or region. Regions are identified by segmentation. But a classificaion may help a segmentation, as reducing the global complexity. Classification may also be used for creative effects. - Classification may be upgoing, hierarchical, with learning, mono- or multi-dimensional, with or without supervision. See [Cocquerez].
- Object oriented programming (OOP). See [Java] [Processing], and A touch of class ([Meyer]).

Clip, clipping.
- A graphical operation. Dealt at large by [Foley], at pixel level, for a lot of cases (2D, 3D, typographic charcaters), with an accordingly large series of algorithms.
- Clipping functions are provided by many programming languages such as [Java] and creation/compositing tools as [Photoshop] or even [Roxame]. See compositing, collage,
- A clip may be also a short cut of audio, video or multimedia material. Some music sequencers take them as components that you can edit individually or assemble together. On the Sonar, for example, you can distinguish Midi clips, audio clips and groove clips. (Daniel Ichbiah, in Sonar Cakewalk Campus Press 2002).

Horloge de Prague
The astronomic clock of Prague.

- A clique is a graph or part of a graph of which every summit is connected to all the other ones.
- As for markovian fields, see [Cocquerez].

- The primal motor of any autonomous digital system.
- Astronomic clock. See Wikipedia , and for public ("astronomic") clocks, see our geographical guide.

Clone. A basic tool for photo editing. [Photoshop].

Cloth. See fabric.

Clouds are a difficult and interesting issue for rendering. The "In the Clouds" projects aims even further and, elaborating on the semantic value of clouds, explores an original form of interaction.

- 1. Representation of clouds
< In the clouds Virtual experience of a matter, by Nathalie Delprat, Claire Leroux and Sarah Fdili Aloui. Communication at Vric 2011. Online.
> eCloud (2007), by Nikolaus Hafermas, Dan Goods and Aaron Koblin. Permanent work in San Jose airport. Expression on a wall of meteorologic data. 2 pages in in [Klanten].
- As a texture: [Ebert] has long pages about cloud rendering and modeling.

- 2. Cloud computing
. Load distribution on a large number of networked computers. See our communication Digital Art, from the Bit to the Cloud (2014).

1. Color management system. For example Cielab. See [Gonzalez].
2. Content management system. Blog management tools, for instance. WordPress is the most famed.

CMY, CMYK. (Arts graphiques) Cyan, magenta, yellow, black. Color coding for printing presses. See [Gonzalez], [Photoshop].

CMYN. Cyan, magenta, jaune, noir. French translation of CMYK.

Co-Creation. Cooperation of several companies, for example to create transmedia works.

Form and code: a deep complicity at the heart of life as well as of digital arts.

Code, coding . See the code part of our Form-matter rnotice.
- Programming. [Bres] gives 18 pages to binary images coding. See also [Foley], [Gonzalez], [Processing].
- Example : Roxame's Processing Code.
- Coded and digital are nearly synonymous. Read for instance Codes, la grande aventure ([Berloquin]), of which we don't resist to translate the conclusion, neighboring generative art: "In this sage, we are partners of the code. We are proud to be its masters, so having the right to create it, to use it, to ignore it or to reject if. But the reality is more complex. Actually, we create code rather easily, but the code can escape out of our control... Even worse, a new situation emerged in the 20th century: the code made a qualitative jump, getting independence and autonomy. Today, the code still depends on us for its creation and develpment, but its recent antonomu affords it to multiply itself and to act beyond our control abilities. Small "frankencodes", by the millions, swim freely in the virtual sphere of Internet and electronic communication. Are these last descendnts of Pythagoras codes a help or a danger greater even than the Planet warming?". ng] < Form+Code: In Design, Art, and Architecture, by Casey Reas, Chandler McWilliams and the graphic studio Lust. Princeton Architectural Press, 2011.
- [Hayles 2012] comments on telegraph codes, pp. 123-170
< Image and Code, edited by Wendy Steiner. Michigan Studies on the Humanities. 1981. Quite far from digital art.
< Coded Character Sets, History and Development, by Charles Mackenzie. Addison-Wesley 1980.
- We do not deal in diccan with cryptology aspects of coding since, as far as we know, it has little aesthetic dimension (but who knows...). Nevertheless, let's quote Cryptonomicon, by Neil Stephenson (Avon, 1999), an exhilarating historical novel, about codes during WW2. Comments on SF

Cognition, cognitive, cognitivist.
- Eléments d'esthétique cognitiviste by Marcin Sbieszczanski. L'Harmattan 2000.
- Connecting Theater and Virtual Reality with Cognitive Sciences, by Pierre De Loor, Charlie Windeschmidt, Karen Martinaud and Vincent Cabioch. Communication at Laval Virtual 2010. Online.
- In interaction programming, see [Thimbleby], in interaction design see [Janet Murray].

Coherence. A set of features that must be similar for a given environment or its projection [Foley] p. 657.

Collaborative. See cooperative.

Matte painting, or painting by "collage". An image from the Spartan tutorial.

- (digital) Artpim, Directory of sites, collage arts, digital art.
- See compositing. In music, remix.
- Collages by Ingres: Ingres Collages by Adrien Goetz (Le passage, Musée Ingres 2005)

Collective. See cooperative.
< Collective Intelligence. Mankind's Emerging World in Cyberspace. by Pierre Lévy. Cambridge, Perseus Books, 1997.

- An issue notably in hair modeling. See [Magnenat].
- Programming [Processing].

Color, colorimetric. See special notice.

Digital colorimetric devuce : a colorimeter, by Eutech Instruments.

Colorimetric. Wikipedia. See special note about color.
- Panorama economic charts in s Créanum , April-May 2011.

Comic band, comic strip.
- A rendering style (non photo-realist).
- Automatic generation of comic strips, some trys in [Roxame].
- Digit Artist dedicated an issue to Comic stricps in 2011.
- See the intervention of Eric Leguay at the Université d'Eté de la bande dessinée, in Angoulême, summer 2011. He indicates, notably, the creation and distribution website Manolosanct.
< Understanding Comics. The invisible art. by Scott McCloud. 1993.
- Roxame's functions and source code for comics.

- A lot of elements about advertisement in transmedia in [Rose].
- Works with an advertisement aim are generally poorly considered by artistic milieux, even when they live out of them. These works are rarely signed. Nevertheless, they are sometimes very innovative and technically perfect, since they are supported by generous budgets. Digital arts are no exception, has for instance showed the "Le futur a un passé" symposium organized at Ensad during Futurs en Seine (2012c.)
Main examples :
- TV commercial clips (also in cinema befor the film)
- commercial pages in printed press; sometimes, small masterpieces!
- in architecture, some public buildings, monuments, urban furniture, corporations headquarters
- advertisement objects
- many political, religious or simply festive events, with clearly more propaganda that art aims, are important forms of total art. It has bee son from the most ancient antiquity.
- even in nature, the most beautiful vegetal objects (flowers) or animal dance performanceperformances (love parades) are forms of commercials... which are appreciated even by the humans.

A wink to history: the shop window as a sorr of virtual reality since 1837, according to Balzac (in César Birotteau): - "Un magazin de nouveautés nommé Le petit matelot, le premier des magasins qui se sont depuis établis dans Paris avec plus ou moins d'enseignes peintes, banderoles flottantes, montres pleines de châles en balançoires, cravates arrangées comme des châteaux de cartes, et mille autre séductions commerciales, prix fixes, bandelettes, affiches, illusions et effets d'optique portés à un tel degré de perfectionnement que les devantures des boutiques sont devenues des poèmes matériels." (In Paris, near Palais

< Design principles for visual communication, by Maneesh Agrawala, Wilmor Li and Floraine Berthouzoz, in Communications of the l'ACM, april 2011. 10 pages.

- For a connected region, compacity (or circularity factor) is near 0 for a circle and 0 for a very oblong shape [Cocquerez] p. 36.

- Companion model in interaction design see [Janet Murray].

Complexity: an image from the situational semantics website.

Compare, comparison.
- Image comparison. A vast research field. [Bres] dedicates to it a 28 pages chapter.
- Musical themes comparison. Used notably by Sacem (a French social institution ) to detect illegal copies.
- Se measurement.

- A technique for contour extraction [Cocquerez] p. 162-164.

Compilation, compiler. To write a compiler is something as a summit in programming art! See the classical Aho.

Complex, complexity. See note in our Ontology
- Simplicial complex . A set of points, in a space, with topological properties. See Wikipedia or [Zomorodian] p.23 seq.

Component. A type of element or fragment. See fragmentation.

Compositing: an illustration from the Wikibis tutorial.

< Composer au XXIe siècle. Pratiques, philosophies, langages et analyses. Edited by Sophie Sévance. Vrin 2010.
< The producer as a composer. Shaping the sounds of popular music. by Virgil Moorefield. MIT Press 2005.
- See music, index of musicians quoted in diccan.

Compositing, composition.

In graphic arts
- Classical compositing principles in painting , on the Renaissance bases [Funck-Hellet].
- Images combination, see blending, inlay, mounting.
- See [Berger-Lioret] p. 26.
- Arts and techniques of images (or music forms) combinations in time, specially in video.
- Scientist and theoricists in computer graphics are comparatiy little interested by this facet of artistic creation. It is, indeed, less exhilarating (should I say, less Platonicist) that pure and sharp procedures. Nevertheless, there would be a lot to do, beyond the reference books of [Brinkmann] but also [Foley]. Nota : Composition, by David Präkel, does not deal with compositing, but with the general composition of a photograhy, without reference to digital.
- From texture standpoint, says , [Ebert]: functional composition for image modeling, expression trees, etc.

In typgraphy
, see typography. - About music and multimedia
- See music, séquencer
< Taylor Robyn, Schofield Guy, Shearer John, Wallace Jayne, Wright, Peter, Boulanger Pierre, and Olivier Patrick : Composing for the Interactive Medium.Communicationw at Laval Vric 2011.
- Computational audiovisual commposition using Lua. by Wesley Smith et Graham Wakefield. 15 pages in [Adams]


- Music. A compressor is an amplifier whose gain is controlled by the input signal. It is defined by its transfer function. It is one of the dynamic scale transformation tools [Roads]. Any compression introduces some distortion.
- Images see [Brinkmann], [Gonzalez],  [Processing].
- Use of compression algorithms and their limits for artistic effects, see Perconte.
- Handbook of Data Compression, by David Salomon and Giovanni Motta, plus the contribution of, D. Bryant. Springer 2010. (1359 pages !).
- More on French note.

Computational Aesthetics. See proper nouns.

Compression algorithms have their flaws. They can be used artistically. Here a work by Jacques Perconte, who gets this way effects of expressive rendering in video.

Computer, computing, computational. These concepts are implicitly present practically everywhere in this site.
- See "Aesthetic computing".
- Computational creativity. See creativity .
- Computational photography. See photography.
- Is the computer more than a tool. See French version.

Concave. Border [Gonzalez].

Conceptual (art).
- The fundamental principle of conceptual art is that idea is more important than the objet. This converges with the lumino-cinetists artists. If the is no longer a work, or more exactly, il there is no longer work under the form of "art object", the spectators leave their contemplative attitude for an active participation" [Popper 1] p.38. (our translation). - It is clear that digital art extends this dematerialization.
- See notably Tino Seghal. Fred Forest. protests.

Concert. A sort of performance.
- Silent concert: all the spectators bear an audio headset. "In Grenoble, they pretend they have organized the largest night of this category in France, with 8 000 headsets available". (Olivier Roy, A Nous Paris 11/7//2011).

Concrete (music). The standpoint of Paul Collaer (1965).

A silent concert, organized by Sony, according to

Configuration. In music, a group of parameter settings. Example: "the internal memory stores data for 128 configurations".

Cone. Programming: a primitive provided by several software products or programming languages such as [Processing], for example.

Connecvolution. Term forged by Michel Bret, to combine connectionism and evolutionism.
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 70.

Connex, connexity. [Bres] deals with it on several places.

Connectionism. [Rennard].
- See [Berger-Lioret] p. 132.

Conscience. See our special notice.

Conservation. See perenniality, curating.

- [Bres] p. 376, talks of consistency as a feature used in image comparison.
- [Foley] p. 404-405 uses the term in dialogue design: "A consistent system is one in which the conceptual model, functionality, sequencing and hardware bindings are uniform and follow a few simple rules, and hence lack exceptions and special conditions". He writes two pages on this issue. console

The Yamaha DM2000 V2 console.

- "The console is the central point of any sound installation, be it on stage or in home-studio". (Patrice Creveux, Home-Studio, July-August 2011).
- About computers, the term sometimes means workstation, or keyboard.
- In programming, it is a working and display mode, useful in debugging phases.

Consonance. See dissonance.

- A constraint is an equation or an inequation which must be verified by a parameter. [Foley] p. 1040-41 explains rather clearly how to apply this technique to modelling (constraint-based modeling).
< Between a Bach and a bard place: productive constraints in early computer arts. by Douglas Kahn. 29 pages in [Grau].

Contouring: an example, using a basic Roxame's filter.

- [Keucheyan].
- Influence of constructivism on the first steps of digital art, see a dedicated chapter in Nick Lambert thesis.

Contagious. A "contagious media" is an artistic practice aiming to penetrate as deeply and rapidly as possible in the whole network [Greene].

Conté Crayon. One of the "artistic filters" provided by [Photoshop].

- Exceptional: some digital in an Art manazine! (Start of 2012). A blog note.

Content. We shall work our own synthesis, but let's start by Wikipedia definitions.

- Wikipedia: In media production and publishing, content is information and experiences that may provide value for an end-user or audience in specific contexts. Content may be delivered via any medium such as the internet, television, and audio CDs, as well as live events such as conferences and stage performances. The word is used to identify and quantify various formats and genres of information as manageable value-adding components of - Web content Wikipedia: Web content is the textual, visual or aural content that is encountered as part of the user experience on websites. It may include, among other things: text, imagess, ounds, videos and
- Content managemnet system. Wikipedia: A content management system is a computer program that allows publishing, editing and modifying content on a web site as well as maintenance from a central interface.
Such systems of content management provide procedures to manage workflow in a collaborative environment.

- The idea of cross-media or transmedia is based on the idea that a same content can be presented (or used, or combined) in several media, or channels, with the technical and industrial aspects of "channel". The multimedia, or multimodal system is more centered on the human senses used in the presentation or interaction.

- Transmedia and games open way to user-generated content (UGC).
- A lot in Digital Storytelling. A creator's guide to interacdtive entertainment. [Miller, 2014].

Continuous (tone). [Photoshop].

Contours. [Roxame], [Flash], [Photoshop], [Open CV]. See line.
- [Bres] p. 315. gives a lot of payges to their study and detection, based on the variation concept. The main algorithms (Sobel, Prewitt, Kirsh, Canny, Dériche...) focus on maximum gradient value.
- [Cocquerez] dedicates his chapter IX (28 pages) to a comparison of contour extracting methods.
- More on French note.
- Roxame's functions and source code for contours.

Contrast. More, on French contraste.
- [Kemp] deals with the subject in its long chapter about colors (mainly contrast between complementaries).
- [Bres], about black and white images, gives mathematical formulas (histogram based) to optimize contrast.
- [Brinkmann] indicates that judgment remains necessary, as well an adaptation, using software ad hoc functions.
- [Photoshop] provides a lot of functions.
- [Roxame] gives source code for several contrast functions.

- Control structures: if, do, while... Wikipedia.
- Control surfaces, for DJ and VJ . Several articles in KR Home Studio Sept. 2010.
- ... somehow, art begins where control reaches its limits.....
- Control cards (Arduino...) [Berger-Lioret] p. 158.
- "What is bad for control can be good for creativity" [Rose] p. 99.

- In interaction design see [Janet Murray].

Convergence. Another way of saying transmedia.

Conversation, conversational. See interaction.

- of color coding : RGB/HSL, RGB/HSV [Foley], [Gonzalez].

Convex, convexity.
- A region is said convex if, between any two points, there is a line semgent stricly included in the region. ([Bres] p. 319). Convex forms are easier to process than concave ones. Then, it may be practical to work on the convex hulls, which are the smallest convex form containing the original one.
- [Gonzalez] has four pages explaining how to obtain a convex hull.  

- About graphic processing, this term says that the spectator feels an impression of realism.

Convolution: an example of application, using the Median function (here from Roxame): for each of the three components of a pixel, the chosen value is the median of values of the 9 pixels in the 3x3 square around it. Thus, you obtain a simplified image, slightly blurred, but frequently more pleasant that the standard bluring, which takes the average of these 9 values.

Convolution. The base of many filters.
- Pleasant animated explanations in Wikipedia .
- [Brinkmann] gives simple explanations of blur, sharpen, median.
- [Bres], more technical than Brinkman, makes distinctions of types (morphologic, product, spatial).
- [Seul] explains and briefly comments.
- [Ebert] underlines noise issues.
- See also [Open CV].
- [Roxame] gives examples of source code.

Cooccurrence. [Cocquerez] has ten pages on that (histograms, matrices).

Cooking, culinary. See special notice.

Cooperation, cooperative (and collaboration)
- Transmedia and cooperation. See transmedia.
< Participa(c)tion. Colloque-Evénement. Mac/Val, Musée d'art contemporain du Val de Marne, 2014.
< Participatory art and computers, by Stephen Bell 2006. PDF file online.
< Univers virtuels et environnement collaboratif, by Jean-Pierre Briffaut ed. . Hermès-Lavoisier 2011.
< Context Providers: Conditions of Meaning in Media Arts. by Margot Lovejoy, Christiane Paul and Victoria Vesna. Intellect, Bristol, UK, 2011.
< Cognitive Surplus. Creativity and Generosity in a Connected Age. by Clay Shirky. Penguin 2010. Very general, more optimistic than critical.
< The 'do-it-yourself' artwork. Participation from Fluxus to new media. Edited by Anna Dezeuze. Manchester University Press 2011.
< Collective Intelligence. Mankind's Emerging World in Cyberspace. by Pierre Lévy. Cambridge, Perseus Books,
- Nod-a. "Collective innovation devices".
- Cooperation is basic in music. Contemporary music, hip-hop for example, tends to merge the roles of producer and author ([Moorefield] p.XIV).
- Cooperation between artists and technicians (notably, programmers) is never easy. See, as for the 1960's, the comments of Nick Lambert.
- [Cocquerez] deals with neural cooperation in his neuromimetical approach ov vision (10 pages).
< Plowing the Dark by Richard Powers ( Vintage 2001). A novel in a computer graphics and VR corporation.
< JPod, by Douglas Copland (2006), a novel on this issue. (French translation, Au Diable Vauvert 2010).
- More on French note.

Cooperative work in the Multicast project, by Oliver Auber. Connected by network, the participants were each mastering a small part of the final image, and modified it to enhance the global result.

Some examples of digital art projects, where cooperation is particularly called for:
- Network works, by Olivier Auber,
- N+1, by Trois Carrés, combining successive performances, with a computer system for the global management,
- 9 Evenings, Theater and Engineering, at the Armory (New York), 1966. A lively report by Simone Forti, in Interagir avec les technologies numériques, Contredanse, Bruxelles 2004.
< The Art of Participation, by Rudolf Frieling, Boris Groys, Robert Atkins and Lev Manovich. Thames and Hudson 2008.

Cooperation can takes other forms:
- the open source movement and communities,
- the publication of techniques, methods, algorithms; in cinema, for instance, John H. Lawson (in his book The Creative Process, Hill&Wang, NY 1964) compares the abundant publication of the Russians (mainly Eisenstein) and the silence of Hollywood.
- the friendly cooperation in non-profit structures like fablabs.

Coordinates. [Foley], [Processing].

- Functions. See, among many, [Photoshop].
- Copy art. Art using photocopiers. Not properly digital, it is a forerunner of digital art by its use of advanced analog electronics. Did not last very long. Mainly 1980's. It has been practiced by Bruno Munari, an artist which had taken part in the Futurist movement.
- But Durand, at Université Paris 8, keeps the flame burning. See his blog.
> Les poissons de l'océan (1983). Copy art by Philippe Jeantet.

- Positioning of a form by its corner (generally, high left forner) and its dimensions. For example, it is the default mode in [Processing].
- Corner pinning: positioning the four corners of an image to form any quadrilateral, upon which the original image will be anamorphosed. It may be used to obtain perspective effects. ([Brinkmann]p. 58).

Correction, corrector.
- In music, a filtering system. It may be "graphical".

Correlation: a mathematical concept which can, somehow, be applied to images. A kind of similarity...

- [Bres] uses the term many times. [Gonzalez] p. 701-704: use of image correlation for pattern recognition.   
- Histograms correlation is a segmentation technique [Cocquerez].

Cosmetic. "Cosmetic processing" ... [Gonzalez] p. 178 quotes the use of low-pass filters to soften an image, notably a face.

Cost. "The equivalent of a recording console which cost $150,000 in 1995 can now be had for about $ 2,000, owing to cheap digital memory, miniaturization, and the increasingly globalized economy". [Moorefield] p. XVII.

Creation, creativity. Is the computer just a tool? Or can it become creative out of himself? A philosophical issue!
< Computers and Creativity, ed. by Jon McCormack and Mark d'Inverno. Springer 2012. The announcement.
< Knowledge, Information, and Creativity Support Systems by Thanaruk Theeramunkong, Susumu Kunifuji, Virach Sornlertlamvanich, Cholwich Nattee. Vol 6746. Springern2012.
< Computational creativity: Wikipedia .
< Thoughts on Computational Creativity, by Philip Galanter.
- Digital art (specially generative art) may be considered an indirect creation, or an "implicite" on (a term used by Ulrike Spierling in [Subsol]) or a "metacreation" [Whitelaw].
- Distributed creativity and tele-immersion, see a communiqué of the CCC.
- The terms makes a trendy come back, according to a communiqué of NSF (National Science Foundation). The project, led by Kristian Hammond seems to aim mainly at story creation (1/21/2011).
< Art, algorithmes, autonomie. Programmer l’imprévisible. by Pierre Berger (Afig symposium, 2009).
< Processus créatifs. 20 graphistes, 20 études de cas (notably Ben Fry). Pyramid 2012.
< Creative Code: Aesthetics + Computation, by John Maeda. Thames and Hudson, 2004.
< The creative mind: myths and mechanisms. by Margaret Boden. Weidenfeld/Abacus & Basic Books, 1990; 2nd ed. Routledge, 2004.
< The philosophy of artificial life. by Margaret Boden. Oxford University Press, 1996.
< Dimensions of creativity. by Margaret Boden. MIT Press 1994.
< L'ordinateur créatif, by Donald Michie et Rory Johnston. Eyrolles 1987 (English original 1984).
-The Roxame sofware is a tentatively positive answer to this question.
- "What is bad for control can be good for creativity" [Rose] p. 99.

Crossover in programming, according to the educational site A525G

- See aesthetics, market
- Canny criterion (e.g. for contour detection) see Canny.
- In genetic systems, fitness criteria decide of individual survival. For generative art, it is logical to choose these criteria by reference to an aesthetic doctrine.
- As for students works evaluation, let us note, on Wikibooks, Languedoc-Roussillon, the following criteria: "out of delay submission, no oral, absence at course times, no paper file, insufficient work quantitatively or qualitatively, too many orthographic, language or taste mistakes".

Critic, Criticism.
1. Art criticism . See special notice.

2. Art as social critics.
- For instance, see tactical media.
- Robot as a critic: Berenson.

Crop, cropping. Suppression of the outer part of an image, reframing. A basic function of graphic tools, [Photoshop] for example.

Crossmedia. Wikipedia
- A variance of multimedia, which could included, if not superseded (2011) by transmedia. See connected television.
- Responsive design, see Wikipedia
- Crossmedia is seen as the distribution of a same work through different medias. Transmedia is the telling of the same story in different forms, each adapted to a specific media.
< 100 notions pour le crossmedia, by Ghislaine Azemard. Editions de l'immatériel, Paris, 2013.
> Zavastar (2011), first cross-media game, by Virdual. .
> Le cross-média, intégration technique et organisation. An article in Le Monde Informatique, 12/1/1995. Cross-media is thn considered a new techology.

Crossover. Several meanings, see Wikipedia.
- An important facet of genetic art.
- Crossover scale. [Ebert], à propos of fractals and Mojo world.

Crowd, crowdworking, crowdsourcing.

- 1. Crowd and crowd moves representation. Important technique for cinema, and for some real life applications, like panic simulation.
< Groups and crowd simulation, a chapter of 30 pages in [Magnenat], signed by Soraia Raupp Musse, Branislav Ulieny and Amaury Aubel.

- 2.Crowdworking, crowdsourcing. An extreme form of co-creation.
- A 12 pages article in the Communications of the l'ACM, April 2011.
- Expériences at Carnegie-Mellon University.

Cube. A basic 3D shape.
- An object directly provided by [Processing], for example. See an example of a cubic grid, by Ira Greenberg, and of the RGB cube .
- The Cube cultural center (see proper nouns).

Cubism. As a theoretical approach, cubism is a forerunner of digital art. Bur, eventually, it did'nt go that far. See the book about Duchamp by [Judith Housez].

Culture: part of the home page of the French ministry.

Culling . Elimination, occultation. An important parameter for 3D images processing, and notably to make processes less lengthy.

- Website of ministère français de la Culture.
- Clic.Club innovation and culture.
- Culture Labs. Supporting action of French ministère de la Culture in order to develop innovating digital practices among a large public.
- Evene. Information site about "toute la culture".
- In interaction design see [Janet Murray].
- A note by Roberto di Cosmo about technological impact SH No 41 (daily life).
- Experiences and uses of Internet by cultural associations AH No 77 (manifestations).
- Culture and research, a document from ministère de la Culture. AH No 24 (pratique)
- Cultures, techniques et organisation. An Afcet conference. Versailles, 8-10 june 1993 .

New challenges for the curators. That may be far-fetching: here an image about trademarks story-telling, on the Express Roulart Services web site.


Curating, curator.
- Crumb Curatorial Resource for Upstart Media Bliss.
< Beyond New Media Art by Domenico Quaranta (2013). [Quaranta]. About digital art in general, but wih a focus on curating.
< Le netart au musée - Stratégies de conservation des œuvres en ligne. by Anne Laforet. Editions Questions Théoriques, 2011.
< Rethinking Curating. by Beryl Graham et Sarah Cook. MIT Press 2010 (* below our comment done for Amazon)
< Arts technologiques, conservation et restauration. Catherine Millet ed. . Artpress2, feb-march-april /2009. 114 pages without commercials!
< The myth of immateriality: presenting and preserving new media. by Christiane Paul. 24 pages in [Grau].
- See perenniality, Crumb website... Other notes (presently in French)

(*) Comments on Amazon about "Rethinking Curating"):
Such a specialized title could dissuade many people to read this book, in spite of its wider catching subtitle "Art after New Media".
But, in fact, curating becomes a central topic in the development of New Media, and so more of Transmedia, for at least two reasons.
1. In the traditional sites managed by "curators" (museums and showrooms), new media don't easily fit in the traditional presentation modes (painting on walls, sculptures on plinths) and storing facilities. They frequently require projectors, low light spaces, sound production means (with an appropriate separation from the other spaces). Some works call for interaction with the audience, with constraints on the floor around. Still more difficult, the perenniality of digital works remains a controversial 2. Even for traditional Art, curated places tend to become multimedia in order to offer their public a better presentation on the spot (headsets and more generally, locative media) and outside (websites).
Since the time this book was written (some three years when we write this comment, on fall 2012), the New Media scene has continued its explosive development and diversification. Tablets and smartphones have brought new kinds of problems and opportunities. Nevertheless, these daring views won't be obsolete before long, due to their depth and openness, would it be only the imperative demand to change and to cooperate between

Curvature. A good page about its modeling in [Cocquerez] p. 33.

Curve. [Brinkmann], [Foley], [Processing], [Photoshop].

- It is cutting that makes cinema a full art dimension.
- La sémiotisation d'une pratique professionnelle. L'activité de montage numérique dans l'audiovisuel. by Dominique Cotte, Marie Desprès-Lonnet and Jacqueline Chervin, in L'écriture de médias informatisés, espaces de pratiques, Cécile Tardy and Yves Jeanneret eds. . Hermès/Lavoisier 2007.
- See compositing, editing.

Cyber as a prefix. For French terminology fans, see the Cogeter note.

< Cyberarts
2004. Ars electronica award, by Hannes Leopoldseler, Christine Schöpf and Gerfried Stocker. Ars electronica center, Linz 2004.

Cybercafé. A coffee house where you can use a connected computer.
- in Africa: Internet, cyberspace et usages en Afrique, by Abdoul Ba. L'Harmattan 2003. AH No 127 .

Cyberfeminism seen by the Le vide poches blog.

- Au delà du viruel. Exploration sociologique de la cyberculture.
L'Harmattan 2001.
- The cybercultures reader. by David Bell and Barbara Kennedy. Routledge, New York, 2000.
- Cyberculture. by Daniel Ichbiah. Anne Carrière 1998.
- Cyberculture. Report to European Council. Odile Jacob 1997.

- Le cyberféminisme d'Haraway ou l'utérus technoscientifique, by Mylène Botbol-Baum, in Les philosophes et la technique, Pascal Chabot and Gilbert Hottois (ed). Vrin 2003. See Hararway.
- Notes in [Greene] p. 62-65, mostly about VNS Matrix.

Cybernetic Serendipity. Show and conference, 1968, organized by Jasia Reichardt. Photography and some notes in Nick Lambert thesis.

- Technical meaning : retroaction control . See retroaction.
- Wide meaning: anything digital.
- History: A note by P. Berger . A more detailed by Patrick Saint-Jean .
- L'empire cybernétique. Des machines à penser à la pensée machine. by Cécile Lafontaine. Seuil 2004.
- Les nouvelles techniques d'information et de communication: l'homme cybernétique? by Franck Sérusclat. Office parlementaire des choix scientifiques et technologiques, 1995.
- Cybernétique et Société. par Guy Lacroix. (Revue Terminal no 61, fall 1993).
- Fondements mathématiques de la cybernétique. by Y. Korchounov. 1975.
- La ville cybernétique. by Nicolas Schoffer.Tchou 1969.

Cyberpunk. Literature, comic books and culture mixing role games, new age and rock spirit.
< Tokyo Cyber-Punk. Post-humanism in Japanese visual culture. by Steven T. Brown. Palgrave Macmillan 2010
< Cyberpunk. A novel by Bruce Bethke, published 1983 in Amazing. Written 1980.

Cyber-rhetoric. A term proposed by Stéphane Caro in his HDR report .

Cybersex. See eroticism.

- Cyberspace et acteurs du cyberconflit. by D. Ventre. Hermès-Lavoisier 2011.
< Collective Intelligence. Mankind's Emerging World in Cyberspace. by Pierre Lévy. Cambridge, Perseus Books,
- In [Ebert] F.K. Musgrave entitles a seven pages chapter "On the future: engineering the appearance of cyberspace", and sets four principles:
. it should be two-dimensional, like the surface of the Earth,
. on intermediate scales it should be spherical, like a planet,
. on the largest scale, it should be three-dimensional, like the universewe inhabit,
. the geometry used for its representation should be, for the most part, fractal.
- Internet, cyberspace et usages en Afrique, by Abdoul Ba. L'Harmattan 2003. AH No 127 (concepts).
- An interview of Philippe Quéau AH No 69.

Cybertext. Wiktionary: "Perhaps popularised by Espen J. Aarseth's 1997 "Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic Literature"; though "The Cybertext Corporation" existed in Arcata in the 1980s.".


Cyberpsace... basically a space for art. But with its threats, here from the Targetcrime site.

Cybook. At French Salon du Livre AH No 19 (actu). See book.

- A full issue of ArtPress 2 (a bilingual French magazine). May-June 2012.
- The Cyborg littéraire, website by Anaïs Guilet.
< The Uncanny: Experiments in Cyborg Culture. edited by Bruce Grenier. Vancouver Art Gallery/Arsenal Pulp Press 201
- Experiences and comments by Kevin Warwick (5/2011).
< Mechanical bodies, computational minds, Artificial Intelligence From Automata to Cyborgs. edited by Stefano Franchi and Güven Güzeldere. MIT Press 2005. Rather fuzzy and philosophical.
- Manifeste Cyborg. by Donna Haraway. A standpoint in SH No 24 (Three questions).
< Manifeste cyborg et autres essais. Sciences - Fictions - Féminismes, An anthology prepared by Laurence Allard, Delphine Gardey and Nathalie Magnan. Editions Exils, 2007.
< Electric body. Le corps en scène. Catalog of an exposition at Paris Musée de la musique (2002-2003). BeauxArts magazine/Cité de la musique 2002.
-<Cyberflesh Girlmonster, by Linda D ement ( CD-Rom new-media).
< Virtual Makeovers for the Post-Identity Cyborg by Isabel Chang.

- Form directly proposed in [Processing],
- A "primitive object" in 3ds Max.





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