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If a purely binary art existed, it would operate on a simple binary string, of unlimited length. This would be its most natural medium. It is the case of DNA (even if bits are represented by pairs).
But our sensorial nature does not work this way. We see and think in 3D, plus the time. Probably this kind of space is a soft of optimum, functional and aesthetic. Even the DNA feels the need, if we can say so, to fold itself in 3D.

2D. This is mainly the image space. Though you could consider music as two dimensional, with the pitch and time matrix (if we limit ourselves to the melodic aspect).
- 2D is comparatively austere, as opposed to 3D, for instance. But as always, limitations open new forms of liberty.


See 3D printing. 3D model files

Unless you feel necessary to dig deeper in metaphysical issues, 3D is the normal state of matter, time to be added of course.
- An add-on to animation software in order to print characters in 3D.
< Questioning Naturalism in 3D User Interfaces. by Doug A. Bowman, Ryan P. McMahan and Eric D. Ragan. Communications of the ACM, Sept. 2012
- Three pages (tabloid format) of an interview of James Cameron about the 3D version of Titanic. (Interview by Saumel Blumenfeld in Le Monde (Culture et idées), 4/3/2012).
< La stéréoscopie numérique , Tourner, éditer, diffuser, imprimer, projeter. Including anaglyph glasses. By Benoît Michel. Eyrolles 2011
< The 3D art book. Prestel 2011. A collection of still images. No reference to computing.
- 3DLive. "This project combines research and terrain wok, art and high tech. That's original !." Article de Sonovision, septembe 2011.
- Les outils 3D par Mirelle Boris (2001, in 01 Informatiqe)

- Paris ACM Siggraph publishes under wiki format a story of 3D in France. The complete version of the "Early days in France" symposium, organized by Paris ACM SIGGRAPH and EnsadLab within FMX about the story of French 3D is avalaible on line: http://paris.siggraph.org/media/fmx/. It offers four hours of testimonies and sories by t.he main pioneers, with the most important vintage films.

The 3D term has two meanings:
- stereoscopy properly, with two images and the need to use special goggles or screens,
- a design monde in physically 2D images, which then can be seen or printed by the classical means.

From an aesthetic standpoint, 3D indeed opens to artists new and promising spaces. Some convincing examples can be seen in the Avatar film. But, as every time with this type of innovation, the first years let an impression of coarseness. In a presentation, at Paris ACM Siggraph of La H ut, the final rendering of the film, highly saturated and contoured, contrasted with the delicate paintings, made by traditional ways as a preparatino. Let's recall that similar phenomena were observed in the 1950's, when color post cards or TV sets got to color. There are two combining factors:
- on the one hand, the new technologies have not reached their maturity,
- on the other hand, profitability demands to think first "mainstream".
Art comes back in the subsequent years, with technologies more mature and less costlty, affording artists to work for less grassroots audiences.

- See the gallery of Jean-Yves Gresser (and, more generally, the Stereo-Club website) about stereoscopy.
- The Que Choisir (A consumer testing magazine, Dec. 2010) about 3D at home "Relief is convincingly rendered, but visual fatigue, and sometime headaches spoil the feast". The magazine's website.
- "3D Full-HD projectors are present in shops. For the moment, at prices from Euros 4 000 euros, these models are indeed costly, but are prefiguration of what the home cinema will be tomorrow." An 8 pages series in Ere Numérique, May-June 2011 (of which 2 pages about glasses).

- The Penthouse 3D channel begins its broadasting on Astra 23,5 degrees East on March 1, 2011. Even in 3D, Make love and not war !
< The 3D Art Book, by Tristan Eaton. Prestel 2011.
- "French public does not enter the 3D" says e Joël Morlo in Le Monde, 11/12/2010. Causes: insufficeint offer of TV sets, economical crisis, but mostly lack of contents.
- A small poll by Le Parisien (11/12/2010) quotes as the most impressive special effects: Inception, Bizarrre Noël Monsieur Scrooge, Poltergeist, E.T. and Avatar.
- A guide to home audio-video 3D equipment is signed by Philippe Viboud in Diapason Hors série, Nov. 2010. His conclusion "After a multichannel sound reproduction, affordint to recreate concert hall ambient nd acoustics, at the stame time widening ans stabilizing the frontal stage, HD images could very well help to make perfect the concert at home".
- Computer Arts magazine published, in the middle of 2010 Création 3D, Le guide indispensable, vol. 1. Solid and oriented towards realization, with 35 tutorials: complex models, animation principles, character desing, lighting and rendering. With resources on a CD. Reference done to 3ds Max, Maya, ZBrush, Vue, Pose, Photoshop.
- tables tridimensionelles pour le contrôle de l'animation [Ebert]

- A state of the arts of character 3D animation: the "Body Motion Control", chapter, by Roman Boulic and Paolo Baerlocher, in [Magnenat]
- 3D printers can be found in open source, notably Reprap of University of Bath/
- Pleasant examples of 3D printing, indicated by Stéphane Maguet, on the blog i.materialize

Some more ancient references:
- 3D modeling in open source SH No 12 (concepts)
- 3D animation days 3D AH No 121 (manifestations)
- 3D Scanning AH No 84 (aiming mainly to history and archaeology labs).
< Créez des photos numériques extraordinaires. Panoramas, photos 3D, photos en relief, animations. by Jean-Michel Reveillac. Dunod/01 Informatique 2003
- Photoréalisme 3D. by a group of authors. Eyrolles 2003.
- Paysages 3D, by a group of authors. Eyrolles 2003.
- Illustrations 3D, by a group of authors. Eyrolles 2002.

<L'image en relief, du film au numérique. by Olivier Cahen. Presses de l'Ecole des Mines 1999.
- The Penthouse 3D TV chain begins his broadcasting on Astra 23,5 degrees Est on march 1st 2011. Even in 3D, Make love and not war!

Jules Verne had foreseen the 3D.

Jules Verne had foreseen the 3D in Le Château des Carpathes. His text lets no doubt about the realism of the image: "Franz was near to throw himself on the stage to take her into his arms... ".

Among the origins of 3D we must quote: perspective, photogrammetry and metrophotography. (The latter two had technical and not artistic aims).

3ds Max. A 3D creation software.
< 3dsMax Bible. by Kelly L. Murdoch. A reference book. it seems to be republished every year since 2008, by Wiley).
- Comparison with Polypro ad Sketchup online. Briefly: Polypro is a little less efficient, and Sketchup is free.
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret].

3DTV. A provider of google-less 3D;

3DVF. A French speaking site dedicated to 3D. Organized every year a competition for infographists.