Digital Art History
Behavioral art by Florent Aziosmanof: Le jardin des amours (2011).
For the following years, see prospective.
Last revised on 9/28/2014. Work in progress.
Spring or final dilution?
Events, 2013, 2014
Literature and text
Painting and photography
Cinema, animation, video
Objects, sculpture, architecture, robots
Performance and interaction
Web, multimedia, transmedia
Digital art spring or final dilution?
The digital context. In all art specialities, powerful machines allow for a gain of complexiy and connectivity, not only with remote sites (high rates transmission (3G, 4G)) but also with the audience (interactivity) and wih the work itsefl, becoming somehow "reflexive", and donning more ane more elaborate behaviors, leading to "living art" [Aziosmanoff].
Even expressions like "new media" tend to be outmoded, and phrases like transmedia then "spreadable media" (Jenkins) or "post media" (Quaranta) are more in the air. Deeper, transmedia creates brand new modes of fragmentation. The basic story has to be "tore apart" (Bernardo says) to be distributed through the different media. Coherence must exist in the author's mind, and conclude in something coherently meaningful in the head of the spectators, individuals or groups.
Transmedia, according to the NOP blog. But transmedia propely speaking requires a differentiated narration of the story according to the different channels, not simply a same content presented on different medias (which is cross-media).
Even art in general continues to dissolve in a globally aesthetized world. The art/science convergence is still stressed, for instance by by [Debatty]. We are up to the point where complexity verges onto chaos, the "digital magma"...
But digital art proper takes off again in France, with several galleries investing in the field, with a stronger presence in Art Fairs, and several very active artists. See The Paris Digital Spring keeps going. The mediation institutions in general advise to avoid a ghettoisation...
2010. National Fab Network Act proposed by Bill Foste
2010. In France, the ECM (Etablissement culturel multimedia) is suppressed. Partly because the multimedia has gone beyound its borders. But the human networks keeps operating, with less formal modes.
2011. La Gaité lyrique and the Centquatre open in Paris. Galerie Charlot, then Galerie Denise René begin to expose digital artists.
2011. The Art as a Way of Knowing Conference, at the Exploratorium, sponsored by NSF.
2012. Ircam. Multichannel sound spatialisation system. Inauguration. See [Leloup, 2013].
Digital spring. In Art Basel (Scope), Zajega creates tempestuous life by generative projection on a plaster model.
2013. Art : the digital springThe Paris Digital Spring keeps going . The Digital Spring goes on.
At Scope, the "off" exposiion of Art Basel, the stand of Galerie Charlot was a clear success. We felt it upon arrival, and kept on the following dayx, with a crowded space, good sales, and the interested visit of the other exhibitors. That concluded a series of satisfying shows.
How to explain that? No doubt the dynamis personnality of Valérie Hasson-Benillouche played the major role. She has
- a flair to detect promising digital artists; she is not a computer geek; she chooses her hosts on feeling, human and artistic at the same time; and it happens that those she chooses have a real practice of the computer, and are not simply users of graphic tools;
- an architect education, which has driven the design of her Parisian site (small, but efficient) as well as each booth in the expositions; not an easy task since digital art demands frequently dark environments (screens, projectors), not easily compatible with the "white cubes" of galleries and public shows;
- a dialogue with the artists to choose the material presenation of their works (for example, the frames around the Perconte's "landscapes");
- the management talents required to drive the well-known as not easy, artist temperaments.
Some technical reasons conjure also to explain this success. They are not specific to Charlot's hosts.
One key of the success is a proper combination of screen/projectors with appropriate material objects. Charlot is not alone to do that, of course. It appplies to Margolis, Verlinde, Schmitt (recently), Israël, Zajega, Paré, Le Meur, but also to artists in other galleries such as Marion Lachaise, Alain Le Boucher, Labau... This evolution was an important key. Reduced to a screen or projector, digital art is pure software. Not only it lacks "substance", but it prevents to enter in the art economy, based on "works" of which the materiality guarantees the unicity as well as the fiscal status.
Another key is a progressive gain in substance of the presented works, even from a stricly software standpoint.
Take the example of Torres. The first of his works we saw at René's where quite poor. Basic geometric shapes and flat colors on a screen. Then, in Brussels, gradations added softness. And, lastly (July, in Paris), a transparent fabric, at some 50cm in front of the screen added some texture and fluidity.
Two other digital "miracles" took place in this period:
- the Daft Punk successes, with a new album (emblematic of the French touch, and with the technological "discourse" of their masks;
- the Paris ACM Siggraph, now the one only really active Siggraph chapter in Europe, and has made constant efforts to create links with the Art world (as well as with research); this effort started in 2001 and is still in progress, for example by its cooperation with Galerie Charlot;
- the come-back into technological art of Galerie Denise René, with a new management; this gallery brings two useful assets to the French digital spring: a rather important exposition surface, with spaces on the two banks of the Sine, and a continuity with the kinetic advances of the 1960's;
- the DaVinci app by Yves de Ponsay (Cité des Sciences).
It came after other Parisian moves:
- Cap Digital, more oriented to the technical markets than to art, but with attention to transmedia, for instance; and important for the French world image due to a prestigious presence in Siggraph;
- La Gaité lyrique and le Centquatre, with a clear mission to promote digital art (not exclusively);
- Digitalarti, a private media corporatin, but with strong public support.
- Different actions by Dominique Moulon, Florent Aziosmanoff
And some failures
- Les Algoristes. Typical of this sort or Renaissance, after the Américan informal group Algorists
- The attempt by Me Cornette de Saint-Cyr and Fred Forest to open the art market to the digital production, with the help of the auctioneer Drouot.
2014. Strenghtening and market widening
- Fall in Paris: nearly too much. Galleries, fairs and public spaces invest more and more in digital art.
- From Viola to Perconte at Collège des Bernardins
- Siggraph breaks new ground : Hyperlapse (by Microsoft).
- Art Basel and Scope Basel : the French still leaders...
- A new shop window for Digital Art in Paris.
- Le musée passager. Digital art in the cities.
- Robotic Art at Cité des Sciences (Paris, up to January 2015).
- Laval Virtual : Interactive art, from biology to psychology. A second look.
- Art Brussels is to open from 25 to 27 april. Imal will present a show and workshops by William Latham. But with little digitalal artists, constrasting wih the rich 2013 spring.
Live coding at La Fabrique (Nantes, France).
Literature and text
The most interesting is perhaps Kristian Hammond., with his creative application, notably stories. That could let hope a renewal of automatic creation of text and story telling, in spite of the nihilist approach of Capture and the mixed conclusions of [Wardrip-Fruin 2009]. Judd Morissey develops a generative narrative-poetic system. Amarantho Borsuk develops "hybrid digital books". Benjamin Moreno Ortiz goes for concrete poetry.
Many "poets" combine poetry with other devices/medias: performance for Jerome Fletcher and Cécile Portier, games for : Jason Nelson, directed sound for Sandrine Deumier, Orkestronika group for Camille Fauchère and Cora Labaeye
Seung-Wok Ko shows an installation with cell-phone. And the trend to mix text and image along various paths is followed on by Léa Chapon and Mutil Ducornet of the Muesli Studio (typography and textures),
Andreas Muller-Pohle, who mixes photography and typography. More classically, calligraphy is practiced by Gerod Gibson and Sisyu.
Georges Aperghis. Recitation 9.
Experiments begin with real-time live coding, notably using Pure Data.
Daft Punk publishes new albums, relauching the "French touch".
Sound and instruments orientation
Research and experiments keep going, without fundamental breakthough. Cheap interfaces like Kinect can be used, and the borderline between music and interaction may become fuzzy. Nevertheless, professional music remains a speciality requiring training.
Fouad Bouchoucha Music with motors.
Andrea Carloggi (Lozio). Extended listening.
Rémi Dury. Karlax creator.
Florence Kraus, Benoit Poulain, Jean-Yves Gratius, Bertrand Moricet, Grégoire Terrier, Patrick Fradet in Orkestronika group with Chloé Gambert for Sound and spatialisation.
Fabien Grisard. Gestual interface for composition.
Gaetan Gromer, interaction and multimedia
Jules Hotrique and Bruno Verbrugghe, founders of Dualo Cy.
Joseph Jaouen Sound engineer.
Gauthier Keyaerts. Sound, interaction.
Magdi Mostafa. Music, sound, multimedia.
Besbes Skander, Aka SDNDR. Multi-instrumentist producer and composer.
Jeron Uyttendael. Sound research.
The composer works more and more alone with a digital studio in a computer or laptop, that may offer him the whole richess of a philarmonic orchestra. But using advanced tooles like that are not really open to te amateur.
George Aperghis. Composer.
Daniel Brown. Generative composition of neoromantic tracks.
Cheveu. Video, light, interaction.
Fabrique_Nomade. Electronic chamber music.
Emmanuelle Gibello. Music composer.
David Guerra . Composing, telecontrol, performance
Joseph Larralde. Composing.
Frédéric Marolleau. In combination with visuals.
François Martig. Music, with other composers.
Krzystof Penderecki. Composer.
Arnaud Rebotini. Concert and visual effects.
Lorenzo Senni. Deconstruction
Atau Tanaka. Interactive music.
Francisco Vico (and al.) Composition software.
Painting and photography
The market is quite healty, and Art Basel 2013, for instance trumpets excellent sales.
Olivier Bohnomme. Painting and video projection.
Pierre Bouillé , Jim Chuchu ( posters), ILK, Andrzej Kuziela, Stefan Morell, Niark-1, Wojciech
David Chanel. Painting and video mapping.
Pijecki , Wouter Tulp,
Sebastian Andaur. With 3D.
Dan Baldwin Uses Flash software and vectorial mode.
Crystelle Bédar. On fabrics.
Benjamin Contant. Matte.
Maébh Costello. Sketches, Photoshop.
Matteus de Faria_Vilas_Boas. Phtoshop to nearly abstract.
Cyril Izam Graphics with Photoshop and C4D
François Martinache With software. Creation, mix and remix.
Matt Pearson. Opiamas Trangelo 3.
Many experiments, generally with comparatively simple algorithms (as far as one can judge), but very diverse effects.
Talbi Abdelazizi. Algorist, beginning with code and enhancing it.
Karim Berkani. Algorist
Alain Bittler. Abstraction with grahic software, with spiritual inspiration.
Elisabeth Fréring. Morphing from watercolors.
Xavier Gouchet. Some algorithms.
Ian Hagarty. On canvas, combination of algorithms.
Matt Pearson Algorist, concerned by emergence. Sophisticated.
Stefanus Rademeyer. Generative.
Etienne Saint-Amant. Fractal art mainly.
Stéphane Trois-Carrés. Algorist and traditional painting.
Thomas Tudouxs. Golem. Software for mobile phone.
François Zajega. Generative art. Projectiosn on material objects.
Thibault Brunet. Inkjet
David Hockney Painting on graphic tablets.
Macin Ignac. Uses Cinder software. Semi-abstract.
Menachel Krinsky. Design
Marcus Neustetter. On screen. Altermodern.
François Olislaeger Comic book style. Projection on stage from real time sketches.
Crhis Orfesccu Micro-photo, nanoart.
Eliott Paquet Drawing
Kathleen-Curran Smits. Painting and photography with digital editing.
Olivier Thévin A sort of watercolor, using the computer as a tool.
Catharina Van_Eetvelde Linear, possibly aiming to films.
Hugo Arcier. A. 3D images under different forms.
Vincent Broquaire. Drawing
Marie-Agnès Kerebel . Flashcode
James Brooks. Drawing, inspired by systems.
Jim Plaxco Graphics, from abstact shapes as well as pictures.
B. Bellabas. Code manipulation.
Jacques Sylvain Couzinet
Arnaud Faure. Combined photograhs, and perhaps video.
Bertrand Flachot. Photographs mixed with handwork
Joan Fontcuberta. Mixed photographs.
Shinsungback Kimyonghun with software
Carine Klonowski protocols
Baptiste Rabichon Scans of screens with dirt.
Franc Schallmaier. Photos and web.
Clément Valla. Architect. GoogleEarth pictures.
Cinema, animation, video
Short films Awards in Annecy 2012. BLU, Léonard Cohen, Antoine Delesvaux. (Le chat du rabbin), Patrick Jean, Damian Nenow, Grant Orchard, Mikey Please, Kamil Polak .
Alessandro Baldasseroni . Modeling and matte painting.
Anabela Costa . Algorithmic, fractals.
Alexandre Deschaud best of show Siggraph 2015
Joodan-Kun. Deviant art. Varied styles and media.
Vicenzo Marsiglia. Generative. Combines images and processing.
Jennifer Nelson. Director, Kung Fu Panda.
Michel Ocelot. Kiriku
Jérémie Périn. Provocative.
Piokaz. Short animation films.
Juan-Pablo Zaramella Animation
Balthazar Auxietre: Eidolon.
Lola Deswarte . Experimental cinema, work with Alain Lioret.
Muchiri Njenga . Traditional aesthetics, digital techniques.
Joann Sfar. Le chat du rabbin.
Aaron/a Sims. Special effects.
Haythem Zakaria: Raq[s], interacive installation.
Claire Allante. Generative art
Ammar Bouras. Video installations.
Zita Cochet. Video, concert, music and visual effects.
Marcel Dupouy Video, processing, combinations with images.
Tasoc Hah. Installation with video.
Marion Lachaise. Video and sculpture.
Geoffrey Lillemon Virtual reality
Laure Milena . Video mounting and displaying
Michelle Son. Vido about office life.
Nathaniel Stern. Video on Second World.
Marc VeyratVideo 2010 Looks quite generative.
Gwenola Wagon . Video, experimental, discovery.
Haythem Zakaria. Geometry and Islamic science.
Design, sculpture, architecture, robots
Hussein Chalayan. Fashion designer and stylist.
Neon tubes had stirred the creativity of artists like Morellet in the 1960-70's. His keep selling well in 2014, and some newcomers like Tracey Emin show new creations, but not digital or
Felipe-Luque Sanchez (different combinations).
Maxime Damecour. Sort of sculptures
Jacques Perconte presenting Mistral, on Sept. 20, 2014 at Collège des Bernardins, Paris.
Novelty in light art come along thres ways:
- 1. Projection/mapping (or video/mapping), who combine powerful projectors with ad hoc software to illuminate monuments. We see that in Art Paris 2014, with a projection by Miguel Chevalier on Grand Palais. Or with Jacques Perconte in the Collège des Bernardins.
- 2. LED brings a cheap, reliable and adaptable white or colored light points, controllable at high frequency. See LED Art. The works fall into several categories:
- screens made of a matrix of LEDs, potentially very large and powerful enough to be seen in full daylight. That is only a variant of video art, not necessarily digital properly speaking,
- sculptures integrating LEDs, be they concrete structures ( Milène Guermont), string sculptures (Le Boucher, Drift Studio (Lonneke Gordijn and Ralph Nauta (Drift Studio) ) or bunches of LED's like some sort of vegetation (Blachere Studios).
- moving formes generated by LEDs with the minimum of matter to keep them in place (Rémi Brun)
- 3. Controlled lighting of flows,be it water ( Daniel Schulze , Partos &Takatani) or sand (Guilermet).
3D printing and fablabs stir great hopes, still widening grassroot creativity by everybody. 3D-relief extends the simple "3D".
A summit in smart behavior had been reached in the precedent decade with the bool of Frédéric Kaplan [Kaplan, 2001] about language robotics, using Sony Aibo dogs. In 2012, also with Aibo dogs, Florent Aziosmanoff created The Little Red Riding Hood (2012), also a summit in generative and interactive art. Unfortunately, Sony has stopped the production (and maintenance) of these robots, and in spite of a growing number of providers (among which the French Nao), art is lagging behind industrial and domestic applications.
In 2014 , the marking event was the Robotic Art expo at Cité des Sciences (Paris, up to January 2015), with great works but unfortunately "small brains".
France Cadet and her small dogs (not Aibo) opened similar perspectives. But, probablu for tehnical and budget reasons, in 2014 she is working more on sculpture holography and interactive photographs than proper robotics.
We note several new artists, mainly working with vegetal materials (but for Kathy High):
Howard Boland and Laura Cinti (C Lab) create genetically modified plants.
Amine Elgheryeni. Genetic coloring of flowers with bio pigments
Kathy High. Experiences with animals or animal materials.
Honf. Bio-chemical reactions.
Allison Kudla. Mainly vegetal.
The term "molecular gastronomy" was coined in 1988 (see 1980's). It seems less trendy in the 2010's. But a new field is opening with 3D printing. We are on the borders of art, but the ground breakers at least can be considered artists:
- Sugar Lab. in Portland (California), a firm founded by Liz and Kyle von Hasseln.
- Sugar Lab in Ventura (California) Owners and mother-daughter duo Kelly Shirk and Alison Davis.
Performance and interaction
Kossigan Roland Assilevi. Coach.
Myriam Bleau. With electronics in objects
Moulla Diabi. Augmented magic.
Rabhi Mbroue . Performance, theater, visual arts.
Clair-Obscur (Le). Complex shows and presenations
Frédéric Deslias. Performance and video
Kitsou Dubois. Parabolic flight.
Mathidle Monnier. An artist makes drawing of the dancers, which are projectec on stage.
Momar Kaëré Ndiaye. Improvisation and choreograhic research.
Natacha Paquignon. Dance with digital installations
Nicole Pschetz. with computers and music by Joseph Jaouen
Aniara Rodado . Seems more theater than dance. Ecological engagment.
Taichi Saotome. Important use of projection effects on stage.
Philippe Baby. La marionnette numérique
Sylvie Baillon. La marionnette numérique
Jeanne Brouaye . with choreography, and participation in multimedia group
Chloé Dumas. And the InVivo group. Scenography and media.
David Durand . La marionnette numérique
Lynn Hughes. Many sensors and projections.
Mathieu Sanchez. Dance and puppets
VJ P-MA. A tactile practice of VJing.
Donald Abad . Video, performance and interaction.
Saïd Afifi Saïd. Installations, engagement.
Avoka. Series of experiment. A production structure.
Collectif Yeta. Interation, sharing.
Vogel Peter Tools 2000 * G M Eipv.htm#Vogel" >
Olivier Delporte. Video and performance.
Renaud Duval. Generative
Sophie Itey. Soft dress and other media.
Zhan Jia-Hua. Interaction
Santiago Ferrero Leon
Selma Lepart. Installations, skin effects.
Carly Whitaker. Relation artist/work/spectator.
Min-Ha Yang. Video and interaction
Li Yu . Bio-art and interaction.
Arthur Zerktouni. Interactive video and performance.
Web, multimedia, transmedia
Nicolas Boillot (Canada) . Net art.
Jean-Marc Chapoulie Mr Google...
David Guez. Net, multimedia, interaction.
Lovelace Caden . Performer, net artist, developer.
Jacobs Bénédicte. Sociology, Facebook
Jacobs Laure-Anne. Meida-art, Facebook
Lucile Haute. Avatars and exchanges. Not specially web
Claudia M ate . Weg, graphism.
Arnaud Pottier . Anything
Jim Punk . Unreadable website
Marc Shepard . Thinker and developer.
Pippa Tshabalala. Games and participating narrations.
Myo Van_Stenis . Net, poe
Fabien Zocco . Interaction, linguistics.
Multimedia and transmedia
Allary Stephane. DIverse media.
Anthony Antonellis. Web. Chip under the skin
Laurence Ashmore. Architecture, design, website design. Commercial partly.
Balthazar Auxietre. Cinema, multimedia, installations. With immersive headset.
Julien B ayle . Generative image, sound, and network connections.
Haroon Baig Interaction, object ( a cuckoo clock), connection to Internet.
Ben Baker-Smith Ben . Sounds and images degraded (audio-video), generative, available on the web.
Leeft Baschz On screen, interaction and web.
Lionel Barret. Procedural content creation. For uban planning e.g.
Gaspard Bébié-Valérian and Sandra Bébié-Valérian . Video, games, material installations.
Lyès Belhocine. Audio, video, interaction. Installations and performances.
Samuel Bianchini . Graphics and typography, programming. The material presentation is second to the concepts.
Siegfried Canto. Projections on buildings. Public space.
Cuss. A collective, founded by Ravi Govender, Jamal Nxedlana and Zamani Xolo. Video, installations, peformance, textile.
Dala. Multimedia on urban spaces
Magali Daniaux. Image, sound. Works with the musician Cécric Pigot .
Annie Dissaux. Cinema (2D animation) theatre.
*** Dorsen Annie. A piece of works : Mixing live performance with algorithms and interfaces, this work flips the switch between man and machine in a digital Hamlet for a post-humanist age
Electronic-Shadow. An architect and a film maker. Hybrid design, hybrid spaces, real/virtual. Interaction of course. For the public, new ways of immersing itsefl in a content.
Hervé Fischer. Multimedia artist and philosopher. Texts
Benjamin G aulon
Nicholas Gherbi. Installations. Mystical inspiration.
Etienne Grenier New media, performance, etc. High level combination of technologies.
Maia Grotepass. The code as basic material.
Christoph Guillermet . Stage lithting software. But also sand jets.
Jonathan Guberman "A typewriter that can type on its own, as well as detect what you type on it. By reading what it types to you and responding, it can be used interactively to play a game or participate in a story"
Judith Guez Interaction. Video, sensors
Garnet Hertz. Web art, robotics, etc. Environment...
Michael de Jager. Multimedia and games, "retrofuture".
Ernesto Klar Global environments.
Patrycja Kudlak Immersive video installation.
Ianis Lallemand. Text, video, sculpture...
Ursula Lavrencic Interferences of cellphones, visualization.
Juan Le Parc. Video, performance...
David Letellier. Plastic artist, architect et musician
Art of Failure. Nicolas Maigret and Nicolas Montgermont. They do as well peformance, installations, on-line projects as publishing.
Thomas Mailender . Mainly a photographer.
Maxime Marion. Rather technical orientation (web techniques).
Alice Martinengo. VJ, scenography, etc.
Yann Minh. Science-fiction writer, multimedia artist, video artist, television director, infographist.
Myrvold Pia Installations with videos and sound.
Oerle Bas_Van Installations, street art. Mainly cinetic structure.
Kareem Osman. Visual multimedia. Socially engaged.
Thomas Pachoud. Complex, highly technical.
Laetitia Perez Interactions. Works with Judith Guez.
Stéphane Perraud . Sculpture, LED, drawing, performance.
Wayne Reddiar. Composer and film maker. Sort of scultures/installations with video.
Cassandra Ribotti. Mainly graphic and web design.
Miroslaw Rogala. He works on synesthesia.
Jon Satrom. Multimedia. Trash and mashup.
Ali Tnani. Photography, design, programming.
Touwslager Auke Netherlands MUltimedia 2010 * GG X
Lukas Truniger Deep structures.
Katerina Undo. Soud experiences and performances
Waterman Colin USA Multimedia 2010 * GG X
Watson Theo United-Kingdom Multimedia 2010 * GG X
James Webb. Large instalaltions and performance.
Woeishi Lean Germany Multimedia 2010 * G X