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T

intuiface4

Table. See surface.
Mixing table (or console) [Roads]. "A recording table is generally composed of six main parts:
. input section,
. output section,
. auxiliary returns section (also said: effects, insertion... ),
. command sending section,
. hearing control section,
. level control section.
- Art work uses tables fitted with various sensing and actuating systems. Here the Intuiface table.
- In interaction design see [Janet Murray] (multitouch and object-oriented programming).
- See array.

Tablet.
- Kind of small portable computer.
- An important facet of transmedia. A lot in Digital Storytelling. A creator's guide to interacdtive entertainment. [Miller, 2014].

- Some artists are doing a lot of painting on this environment.

- Graphic tablet. This device is more efficient than the mouse when some precision in moves is of importance.
- [Faure-Walker], [Foley]

Tactical (media).
- Tactical Media. par Rita Raley. University of Minnesota Press 2009
- Notes in ([Greene] pp. 120-121 . More in French.

Tactical media: be active an efficient, but maybe invisible.against any power abuse,

Tactile. Sensitive to touch (e.g. screen). See Interactivity.

Tag
- Image tagging, see annotation.
- In interaction design see [Janet Murray].

Tattoo (of images).
- Tatouage de documents audiovisuels numériques, edited by F. Davoine and S. Pateux. Hermès/Lavoisier 2004. SH No 31 (concepts).
- Interview of Henri Maître AH No 92.

Techno. A kind of digital music, see [Leloup, 2013]

Technology. The state of technologies is important for art evolution.
- More in French.

Telephone.
- Art by telephone. Connectez-vous (A Fred Forest action, within Art Côte d'Azur, from March 9 to April 20, 2011).

Telesurveillance. See Surveillance.


Teletext. See typewriter art.

Television. See special notice.

Temporality. See time.

Terrain.
- Textures [Ebert].
- Terrains are modeled as landscape elements.

Connected TV and relations with Internet. An UER

Tessellated, tessellation.
- Programming: [Cocquerez], [Processing].
- Note: tetrahedrons do not tessellate the 3D space.

 

Text. See notice. .

Textile. See fabric.

Texture.
- Graphism. [Ebert] is the "summa" of this domain.
- Texture synthesis and evolutionary computing (by Craig Reynolds).
- Programming: [Cocquerez], [Foley], [Gonzalez].
- Music: [Ross] p. 613. Vibrato or trills, but mostly timbre may be heard as a kinds of textures, and of course generated by procedural means;


intuiface4
Text is the heart of language and more generally of information.

Texturology. A theory by Patrick Saint-Jean. AH No 33.


Theater. See special notice.

Thick, thickening.
- [Cocquerez], [Gonzalez]. Thickening a line is not difficult... unless if you want to get a pleasant result.

Thin, thinning.
- [Bres] Thinning and thickening for a better image analysis. [Cocquerez].
- Thinning of a line is more difficult that its thickening, if you want to keep it continuous.

Third Culture. An expression defined by Kevin Kelly, journalist for Wired, in Science 279 (1998).
- The definition is developed by John Brockman, The Third Culture: Beyond the Scientific Revolution, Simon & Schuster: 1995.
- Has inspired 3D light art, such as Nova, by ETH Zurich. See description in [Adams].

Thresholding on gray level, according to Imperc.com

Threshold, thresholding.
- It may be applied to any kind of signal. In art, mainly to image and sound. Il may be a nuisance (generally, in music or photography), or searched for as a stylistic effect (mainly image). Applied to the color scale of an image, multiple thresholding is called posterization. - A basic method to digitizing a continuous input signal, with a succession (ramp) of thresholding levels.
- Images [Cocquerez], [Gonzalez], [Processing].

Tile, tiling. [Java].

Timbre: in music.
< Composer au XXIe siècle. Pratiques, philosophies, langages et analyses, edited by Sophie Stévance. Vrin 2010
- interview of Sylvain Marchand AH No 60.

Time. See special notice.

Tonal, tone.
- Graphics See color, [Photoshop]. Examples in [Roxame]: blue toning, bister toning.
- Tone shading. A not photorealistic technique, use mainly in illustration. See the IEEE tutorial.

Tool. See special notice .

Topology. See space.
- Computational Topology in Image Context by Massimo Ferri, Patrizio Frosini, Claudia Landi, Andrea Cerri, Barbara Fabio.Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Volume 7309. Springer c. 2012.

Tortoise.
- (Turtle) Graphical models for plant or textures building. [Ebert].
- Small robots for drawing, after Grey Walter works, in the 1940's. They contributed to the birth and celebrity of Logo programming language. Harold Cohen describes the way he uses them in his 1979 paper What is an image?
- More in French.

Total (Art). From the German Gesamtkunstwerke. Wagner was the first to embody the concept. Wikipedia.
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 45, 87.
- Some notes. But see mainly transmedia.

Touch, touch up.
- One of the senses: an important interactivity mode. See haptics
< Scans et retouche d'image. by Kerstin Eisenkolb and Helge Weickardt. Micro-application 1997.
< Retouche photo, ou l'art de ne pas aller trop loin, in Créanum, July-August 2010.
< La retouche en continuité de la photo, a set of papers in Créanum April-May 2011.
< La retouche beauté avec Photoshop, by Stéphane Lim and Yves Chatain. Paris, Eyrolles (?) 2010.

Tourism. Take the opportunity of your travels, professional or leisure, to visit the local digital art resources. See our geographical guide.

Tracker.
- Music: a simplified synthesizer . (Daniel Ichbiah, in Sonar Cakewalk 2.0. Campus Press 2002).

Transdisciplinary, transdisciplinarity. See multimedia.

The Fourier transform, according to Wavemetrics.

Transform.
- Programming: [Foley], [Gonzalez], [Processing].
- Affine [Agoston], [Zomorodian].
- Fourier, Z, [Cocquerez].

Transgression.
< Art et Trangression, by Dominique Berthet ed. Published by L'Harmattan, Paris, 2017/
- Rule transgression is a powerful artistic method. See notably A linguistic guide to English poetry by Geoffrey Leech (Longman 1969).
- Notes on "Programming the transgression"

Transhumanism. See French version.
< Automate this. by Christopher Steiner. Penguin 2012
-The Transhuman Story: our View.

Translation. Algorithms in [Gonzalez], [Processing].

Transliteracy. A form of transmedia.
< Transliteracy and New Media, by Sue Thomas, in [Adams].

Translucency. Wikipedia [Processing].
- An important and difficult aspect of skin rendering.

Transmedia. See notice.
- See long notes about this term.

Transmission
- In interaction design see [Janet Murray].

Transparency. Explanation by Adobe.

Transparency. Wikipedia.
- See our special notice. Transparency, hide and display.
- Technically: Alpha layer. [Foley], [Flash], [Photoshop].
- In interaction design see [Janet Murray].

Tree.
- Quaternary. [Cocquerez].
- Hierarchical. [Brinkmann] .
- Programming [Gonzalez], [Seul], [Ebert], [Java], [Processing].
- Modeling. [Ebert].
- In interaction programming, see [Thimbleby].
- Dialogue tree model, see [Wardrip-Fruin] pp. 51 sq.
- There are sophisticated algorithms to skim throug trees, search into them.

Triangle, triangulation.
- A graphic shape.
- A mesh element.
- [Agoston] ,[Cocquerez], [Zomorodian]  [Foley] [Processing].

Trumpet. See wind instruments.

A document out of Rencontres de Lure, a classical meeting of French typography fans.

Turbulence. A kind of structure, even if is highly stochastic!

Twirl . Operator. [Brinkmann].

Twitter
- and transmedia, see [Rose], the chapter "Twitter and nothingness", pp. 199-220, and [Bernardo] p. 101.

Typewriter art. see special notice.

Typographer, typography . See calligraphy.
- Index of calligraphy and typography artists quoted in diccan.
- Programming: [Foley], [Processing].
> Meek FM (2007à is s a collaboration between Meek Design and Frank Müller from United States Of Design. It is a typographic machine combined with sounds. 2 pages in [Klanten].
- Generative Typografie Seminar (2008).
- Atelier Müesli (Mytil Ducornet and Léa Chapon). Typographic creation. Presented in Advanced Creation, 3/2011.
< La fontaine aux lettres, by Joep Pohier. Taschen 2011.
- Interview of Jacques André SH No 48.
< François Boltana & la naissance de la typographie numérique. by Frank Adebiaye & Suzanne Cardinal. Atelier. Perousseaux 2011.
< Typographie et programmation. Note by Michel Volle AH No 82 (concepts).
< Code typographique. Syndicat du livre, Paris.
< Musique typographique. Manuel de typographie musicale, by Théophile Beaudoire, Paris 1891.
- (History) Typographes des lumières, by Philippe Minard, Champ Vallon 1989.
- Just for pleasure, a text by Antoine Firmin Didot, 1955.

linotype
The Linotype, emblematic machine (with the Monotype, its competitor) of text composition from lead typesdescendaient du réservoir (en haut de la machine),

-Composing was the assemby on a composing stick the lead charactes taken out of the case (of which the high part was the "upper case". Manual compositing ws progressively replaced by mechanical machines ( (Monotype and Linotype mainly. See La composition mécanique. Histoire, évolution, état présent, développement futur, by Antoine Seyl. Bruxelles, Imprimerie scientifique et littéraire, 1926), then by phototypesetting (Lumitype, for instance) with an output on film. It was to feed automatically these photocomposers that were design the mark languages. The first of all, GML, was launched by IBM for large machines (costly and inefficient in this activity). Then came SGML, HTML et XML. Finallyn word processors, graphic perifpherals and the integration of the graphic chain took to the disparition of specific machines and the whole profession or

Typology.
Is it, or how far is it possible and useful to draw typologies of arts and works of arts?
- It is possible as soon as one identify a definite feature with several different values.
- It is a useful aid to find one's way into the ever more rapidly growing mass of artists and art works. It is also a basis for ranking.

A first typology is the distinction between different categories of arts or artists. We have done that for all the artists present in diccan, and you can see the result in our specialty index. We project to refine it progressively, with a more multi-dimensional characterisation. For example, today (May 2013), we have categories as "interaction". In fact, today, a lot of works become interactive, be they video projections, sculptures or biological. Then we will, some day, put interaction as a feature and not as a category.

Note also that typologies are grounded not only in the media used (canvas, screen, paper, physical tri-dimensional objects) but in cultural and professional habits and talents, legal statutes, markets (not to say business models) and political engagements (e.g. tactical media).

But a typology cannot be absolute or definitive. With digital art, it tends to become more and more difficult, since
- computers enable a one-only artist to practice different forms of media in its home studio,
- cross-media and transmedia open, ever more widely, the combination of different forms of art into "spreadable medias", to use a Jenkin's expression [Jenkins 2013].

Conclusion: use typology as a useful but basically imperfect tool, and above all avoid absolute and "essentialist" art ontologies.


 

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