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P

Padding with a CSS, an example from the Benadel's blog.

Packager of contents
- See New3S. release.

PAD. Wikipedia: Portable Application Description is a machine-readable document format designed by the Association of Shareware Professionals. It allows software authors to provide product descriptions and specifications to online sources in a standard way, using a simple XML schema that allows webmasters and program librarians to automate program listings. PAD saves time for both authors and webmasters. PAD files most commonly have .XML or .PAD file name extension.

- An important component in transmedia.

Padding of an image
- a category of filters by convolution [Gonzalez] pp.199-205
- insertion of blank parts by the CSS, in web page design.

Pain
- Games of Pain: Pain as Haptic Stimulation in Computer-Game-Based Media Art. by Paul Waelder Laso. Leonardo vo 40 no3, 2007. Presents PainStation (2001) and LegShocker (2002) by Fur, Tekken Torture (2001) by C-Level and Tazer Ting by Randi Sarafan. Is it art ?

Paint, painter, painting. See notice.

Palette
- Programming: [Foley], [Roxame], [Flash], [Photoshop].
- Preset scale of colors.

Panning.

[Brinkmann]

palette
A palette from the Lebadywebsite.

Paper
- Is paper for or against digital? SH No 36 (concepts)
- Printing statistics AH No 93 (entreprises)
- Le livre papier se porte bien AH No 72
- Le papier électronique Hamelin (entreprise française) permettrait de l'utiliser comme support informatique. AH No 53
- (Note in 2001). Paper keeps a major role, even for users of advanced technologies like multimedia animation. Let's quote for instanceThierry Audoux, in his book about Director 8 software: "Paper and pencil are indispensable tools to set the subect. The more precise your description, the less problems you will face in production. Dont launch yourself at once on your comuter, you risk to forget te subject itsefl and to lose your time".

Paratext Wikipedia: See Didascalia.

Park (Amusement).
- See our geographical guide
- Musées et parcs, la convergence? 12 pages by Annick Hémery, Sonovision, May 2011.

Parse, parser, parsing See analysis.

Participative, participatory. See cooperation.
- In transmedia, see Jenkins

Particles (systems) [Ebert]: procedural animation techniques.

Paste, pasting. [Photoshop]

A far sighted view of Human patrimony curating in the long term: the Keo satellie. Image from a Listverse webpage.

Patrimony. See curating, museum, perenniality.

- A well documented paper in Interstices, June 2017. - Private corporations, mainly Google, are now taking the responsibilkity of patrimony perenniality.
- Digital patrimony, site of French Ministry of Culture, catalog of digitized collections, with an access by regions, and also Joconde , catalog of Musées de France collections.
< Notes about cultural patrimony as seen in France, notably in the line of the Malraux initiated "inventaire", by Michel Melot: Mirabilia (Gallimard 2012).
< Préserver son patrimoine numérique. Guide à l'usage des particuliers et des entrepreneurs individuels. by Claude Huc. Eyrolles 2011.
< Numérisation et patrimoine, B. Couasnon and H. Emptoz eds. Hermès 2004.
- Normalization et educational heritage AH No 132 (enseignement)
-<Le patrimoine à l'heure du document numérique, AH No66 (biblio)
- Digital distribution of patrimony. Ory-Lavollée report (Jan. 2002)

Pattern.. See our notice about form.

agam
A modern organ pedalboard

Pedalboard . Keyboard for the feet.

Pen. [Foley], [Flash], [Photoshop].

Pencil. [Foley], [Flash], [Photoshop].

Perception. See special notice.

Perenniality, perennization. See notice.

Performance, performer. See notice

.

As for perennality, it will be difficult to make better than paleolithic cave paintings (here, Lascaux) ... but for the fact that today's humans are spoiling them by their (biological) breath, and try to give them a new future through digital copies.

Perfume. See odor

Perl (language)
- Perl poetry contest.

Permanence.
- An important feature of generative art, transmedia and new music: the works nevere cease to be active. It may be under different forms.
- In transmedia storytelling, there is a permanence in the existence of the main characters and of their presence in the mind of the spectators. But the actual presentations are separate moments in time.
- With generative art, the generative beings implemented can permanently create art expressions without ever repeating the same images or sounds, due to the richess of their inputs and of the random part of their algorithms.
- For music, the ambient work becomes a permanent part of the architecture, see [Leloup, 2013] pp. 40-42.

Personage. See character.

Perspective is considered as really invented by Alberti. Here a basic scheme.

Perspective
- Perspective and anamorphosis correction. May be done with DxO ViewPoint software.
- [Brinkmann], [Foley], [Photoshop]
- [Kemp] [Haraway] [Levy-Ranvoisy]  
- History: La perspective comme forme symbolique.  by Erwin Panofsky Editions de Minuit 1975.
- Color and aerial perspective [Ebert]
- Examples in Processing
- Olivier Auber develops the concept of anoptic perspective. .

Perturbation. [Ebert]

PGI. Procedural geometric instancing. Dealt with by Hart in [Ebert]. .

Phigs. Programmers hierarchical interactive graphics system. .
< Template: Understanding Phigs. Megatek San Diego 1985.

Philosophy. See in French version.

Phonetics, phonology . Wikipedia. Prosody.

Phong shading, in the center. On left, facets. On right, Gouraud shading.

Phong . A type of shading [Foley]

Photocopy, photocopier. See: Copy art

Photo, photographer, photography. See notice

Photo-realism
- Photoréalisme 3D. by a group of authors. Eyrolles 2003.
- See non-photorealism.

Photoshop. See Adobe

Physical computing opens new ways of creation. See for instance the Jack Tait website.

Physical computing.
- According to Multimedialab, "Physical computing is the construction of interactive systems to connect the physical world and the world of computers. Hardware and software are necessary, but the technical conditions are today affordable".
- A main product: Arduino cards. The Wiring card has higher performance but is less common. Texas Instrument has announced, nearly free, its TI Launchpad card. See also Beagleboard.
- Alain Lioret quotes also:   Interface Z, Picocricket, Mimio, Gainer, Phidgets, Aniomagic, mbet by PSoC. 
- A lot of ideas on the Jack Tait website.
- You will need a minimum of room and tooling, plus competence to help you. Cooperation with other fans or professionals is both pleasant and unseful. Hence the importance of Fablabs.
- More in French version. French version.

Piano.
- Automatic piano reacting to the environment. (2013). Actually, it was remotely controlled by Andrew Blenderman. See Buzzfeed.
- Education onInternet http://www.jejouedupiano.com/
- See keyboard, organ

Pictogram. Practically a synonuym of icon.

Pigment. [Gonzalez] . See color.

Pimage. [Processing]

A high number of pixels allow high resolution and study in depth or works of art, for instance in the Google Art project.

Pixel
- Programming [Brinkmann], [Foley], [Gonzalez], [Java], [Processing], [Roxame], [Photoshop]...
- Is the pixel to die? According to a team of University of Bath, researchers launching a new vector-based video codec are claiming their work will lead to the death of the pixel within the next five years. (12/2102).
- 7 billions of pixels: (Harry Bellet, Le Monde , 15 Feb. (2011?), googleartproject.com.
- Pixel, or raster representations have their limits, then it may useful to use vectorial models..
- Gigapixels. Some cameras are able to reach the gigapixel (Darp, 6/1/2011).

Pixelize. A kind of filtering. Photoshop, [Roxame].

Place. See location.
- As a media, see the word in transmedia.

Plagiary (anti). Notes in the books [Agoston], [Foley].

Planet, planetary
- Texture, atmosphere [Ebert].

Interactive Planf Growing, a famed work by Sommerer and Mignonneau.

Plant
- Plant modeling, dealt at length by [Ebert], notablu using a L-sytem.
- Cirad's (Montpellier, France) works AH No 28 (concepts).
- Miguel Chevalier's works;
- Landscape creation software.

Plastic artist
- Index of plastic artists, mainly sculptors, quoted in diccan.

Playability.
- Criteria measuring the ergonomics and ease of handling of a game (according to phpmyvisites). .

Plotter. One of the first graphical printing tool, using a "pen" driven by motors. More on the French version.

Albert Ducrocq: an example of verse generated by Calliope

Poetry .
- Index of poets (and poetry generators) quoted in diccan.
- Poetry and transmedia, see Movens meeting.
- Notes on spring 2012.
- Perl poetry contest.
- Generative poetry. Alain Lioret indicates the website http://directory.eliterature.org/
< The Quinary—Permuting Meaning with Generative Poetry by Brian Evans. Article online.
- Text by Vincent Wahl AH No 81 (concepts)
- (History) The first attempts to automate poem generation date back to Surrealism, and were continued in Oulipo. During the 1950's, Albert Ducrocq made his automatic generator Calliope.
- On fall 2000, wa held éleKtropoétiK "first show of electronic/digital poetry in France", designed by Franck Laroz and Frank Smith, scenographer Georges Gagneré, with texts by Franck Laroze, Frank Smith, Patrick Bouvet, Nathalie Quintane, music by Cédric Pigot, Radio Mentale, Vincent Epplay, Xavier Boussiron, videos by Agnès Desnos, Gabrielle Wambaugh, Stéphane Bérard, and with Delphine Raoult, Rendez-vous électroniques at the Centre Pompidou (Paris, 9 septembre) and the festival Interférences 2 - CICV/Pierre Schaeffer (Belfort, 16 décembre 2000), coproduction EvidenZ - Incidents Mémorables, with support of Ministry of Culture and Printemps des Poètes, La Beauté en Avignon, Technopol, Centre Pompidou, CICV/Pierre Schaeffer, Radio FG
< Poésie sonore internationale. by Henri Chopin. Jean-Michel Place Editeurs? Paris 1979. A rare and thick book on poetry seen from a sound standpoint.

Points, even reduced to black and white, may compose a subtle generative work of art, lke the "Quantic ballets" by Antoine Schmitt.

- This domain of research has been cultivate for decades by Jean-Pierre Balpe.
- In [Leech], notes about rules transgression in poetry.
- [Mark America] is a poet as well as a VJ.
- More in French version.

Point
- Le typical case of a notion apparently simple! But a geometrician, a topologist, an algebrist, a graphist on Photoshop, a speaker, the leader of a meeting... have not the same idea of it.
- See pixel, stipling.
- [Agoston], [Java], [Processing].
- Altitude evaluation of a terrain point [Ebert]
- Anchoring point, see anchor.
- Bézier points: a modeling technique for solid objects.

Politics.
- An important aspect of transmedia
- On other issues, more in French.

Polyhedron. [Foley].

Polygons may be used for modeling any 3D xhape. Here images form a tutorial on graphic cards, maxk69.

Polygon
- Voronoi , Tchebycheff.
- Subdivision [Ebert].
- [Bres] deals of that as a method to encode images.
- [Cocquerez], [Foley], [Processing], [Roxame], [Photoshop].

Polyline. [Foley]

Polysensorial. See multimedia.

Posterization is obtained by replacintga full color space (typically, 24 bits in RPG) by a limited set (for example 16 or 256) of colors.

Pop art (digital). See the Numartis blog of Hubert Hamot (an artist).

Pornography. See eroticism.

Portrait
- Representation of a person. Example: a robot drawing portraits, see Indian Press Trust , June 21, 2011, or robot portraits by Tresset.
- An orientation of printing, opposed to Landscape.

Poser
- Software for character and body generation.

Position
The position of an object inside an image may be computed by algorithms for optimization, or tiling…


Post-digital. See digital art.

Poster, posterize, posterization
Many graphic software products offer this kind of functions. See [Brinkmann], [Processing], [Roxame].

Post-humanism. See French version.

A postmodern illustration on the Sens public website.

Postmedia.
- The Postmedia Perspective, concluding chapter of [Quaranta].
- A Canadian corporation, Postmedia Networks.
- A laboratory Postmedia Lab: CDC, Center for Digital Cultures. "A collaboration between Leuphana University (Germany) and Mute Magazine. The Lab is focused on the potential for 'post-media' practice, drawing upon Felix Guattari's concept of social and medial assemblages which unleash new forms of collective expression and experience. It is centred around a supported programme of visiting fellows – artists, technologists, film-makers, theorists, post-media operators – and the production of a series of associated, international public events and publishing projects." - A web gallery. Postmedia.net. Not specially digital.

Postmodern, postmodernism
The term is used notably for architecture, since the 1970's. Painting and music made this mutation sensibly earlier.
A major feature of postmodernism is the end of "great narrations". Everybody build their own specific narration. See for example the "database" philosophy of Azuma.
< The Death of Postmodernism And Beyond, by Alan Kirby. Online.
< La condition postmoderne de Jean-François Lyotard (Editions de Minuit 1979) . Mainly a report about Unversity and new technologies. .
Architecture: [Picon] referring himself to [Venturi].
- See [Jameson], [Anderson], Database.
- More in French version.

Post-production. The third stage of making a film, after preproduction and filming (the production proper). See production . Wikipedia

Postscript. Printing standard interface, or, in other words, a page description language.
< Manuel de référence du langage Postscript, by Adobe systems. Vuibert, arond 1998.
< Le livre de Postscript. by Bernard-Paul Eminet. PSI 1987.

Posture. See French note.

Primeval, an Algorist project by Pierre Berger and Michel Bret. The concept is to generate images by crossoer of genomes. Eventually, the project was never properly finished. Similar concepts can by foud in the fractals based software of Cetoine.

Presentation.
- Software for visual and oral public presentations. See Powerpoint, the main product here.
- Data presentation is sometimes considered a form of art. See for example Warren Sack, Allan Sekula.
- La PréAO, présentation assistée par ordinateur. by Xavier Lucron. Dunod 1993/

Press
- A digital art as such?
- A directory of (French) press contacts for the Arts sector is published Culture Médias.

Prewitt. Contours detection method [Bres] ,[Cocquerez]

Primitivism
- In music, the standpoint of Paul Collaer (1965)


Primeval. A genetic art project of the Algoristes, lauched by Michel Bret and Pierre Berger. Did not succeed.

Print, printer, printing. See special notice.

Procedural, procedure
- Procedural genaration and PGC, see Generation.
< Texturing and Modeing, A procedural approach. [Ebert]:
- Procedural is opposed to sampled (about textures).
- Procedural rhetorics, see a web page by Matt King.
- Procedural complexity in interaction design see [Janet Murray].
- See algorithm . Programming theory makes a procedure distinct of a function, inasmuch as it does not returns a value.

Proceduralism.
Judson Rosebush published The proceduralist manifesto at Siggraph 1989 (accessible online, but for a fee). Some comments on Sagamie

Procedure.

Process, processing. See the sofware Processing and Expressive processing.
- More in French version.

Processor (graphical) , See GPU.

Producer, production . See special notice

Projection monumentale. Another name for sound and lighting. See French version. See also Video.

Programming is for some artists a pleasure, if not an addition. For others it is only a constraint, or something that they have to find somebody to do for them. Here, in La Fabrique (Nantes), a workshop of live-programmint using Pure Data.

Process See [Wardrip-Frouin] p. XI, [Ross] p. 665

Profile. [Photoshop]

Program, programming
1. Computer programming
- The whole oeuvre of Bertrand Meyer, and specially A touch of class (Springer 2009).
< Le rôle du programme en littérature numérique, by Philippe Bootz Online.
- Le programme et la main. by Bernard Demiaux. Editions du Sextant 2010.
- De la programmation considérée comme un des beaux-arts. by Pierre Lévy. La Découverte, 1992.
< Direct Manipulation. A Step Beyond Programming Languages, by Ben Shneiderman. Reprinted with comments in [Wardrip-Fruin 2003].
- Computer program Vs. musical score, see the thesis of Nick Lambert
- Programmatic music. (Wikipedia).

Programs diversity according to Numilog.

- See algorithm, aesthetic computing.
- Critical quotations about programming langages .
2. TV (and other media) programming

- Difference between flow programs (in French: programmes de flux) and stock programs (programmes de stock). A note by Numilog

Progress. Is progress possible in art? See discussion in French.

Projection, projector.
< Projection: vanishing and becoming. by Sean Cubitt. 16 pages in [Grau]
- [Foley] . Mathematical aspects.
- Projection mapping (synonym Video mapping). Wikipedia.
- More in French version.

Property (intellectual). A very vast topic. Just some notes here.
- Brand becomes an important aspect of intellectual property, notably in transmedia.
- Creative Commons, a complement to authors rights SH No 34. (pratique)
- A consortium to manage digital rights SH No 30 (entreprises)
- Online games and industrial property . (Symposium APP) SH No 27 (entreprises)
- Le livre numérique et l'édition européenne. by Maud Plener. SH No 09 (concepts)

- Associations against the protected CD AH No 95 (actualité)


- Protection of multimedia flows. AH No 92 (interview de Henri Maître).
- American unversities defend Napster AH No 05 (pratique).

Creative Commons, a basic and easy to protect intellectual property.

Proportion, proportions .
- See [Kemp], [Vitruve], [Funck-Hellet].
- See canon.

Prosody. See speech, expression.
- Art of expressing a text orally. Wikipedia

Prospective. See notice.

Prototyping (rapid). See 3D printing.
- Assises du prototypage rapide

Psychedelic Nuages [Ebert].

Prosody of a performance may be studied with electronic tools. Here a study by Charles Bernstein on the Buffalo.edu website;

Psychology. See major concepts, behavior, emotion.
- Psychology in digital art emerges at Laval Virtual 2014. See our post. Until then, it is surprising, if not shocking, that art and artists never pay attention to psychology (or sociology?). This topic is nearly considered indecent, pertaining to the realm of commercials. There are some exceptions. Ircam, for instance lists it as one of its research disciplines. But there is a substantial article in Wikipedia, with 68 (on 5/7/2013) references to primary - See emotion, expression, aesthetics, synesthesia.
Just to give ideas, some farfetched references:
- [Thibault 2010], in spite of its title La géométrie des émotions, is essentially formalist.
< Manuel de dessin pour communiquer avec une population non alphabétisée. by Francine Lévy-Ranvoisy. ACCT-Karthala 1987.
< Education through Art. by Herbert Read. Faber & Faber, London 1958.
- Uses of psychology in digital art, which could be enhanced by good theories and practical documents.
. artists could use it to build their projects, implement them, organize interaction.
. critics could evaluate the psychological effects on spectators.
. spectators, using comments by critics, could understand better and enjoy art.
- About digital art, two issues can be dissociated: psychology of art, psychology of the digital.
- Possible research tracks:
. typology/profiling of artists and their works
. "genetic" aspects of psychology, its development, from childhood to maturity and senescence; that is partly done in biographies.
- An example in [Read, see above], which evokes the digital aspect of art:: "It is usually assumed that a profound change occurs in the average child at about the age of 11, which change involves the desuetude of aesthetic modes of expfessino. Admittedly a profound change of a psychological nature does take place at this age. From our point of view it may perhaps be described ad the discovery of logical thought - the mental revolution so vividly described by Bergson, Claparède and Piaget. The child acquires the power of breaking up, or dissociating, his first unitary perceptions, and logical thought begins with this capacity to isolate and compare components details. From this comparative or correlating activity (Spearman's 'education of relation') proceeds the abstract thought of concept, and it must undoubtedly be true that the change thus introduced into the mental process of the child has a profound effect on his modes of expression. " (He continues with an accusation of society as destructive of creativity).

Public. See spectator.

Pulpit. See workstation.

Punctuation. See Writing.

Puppets.
- Co-Puppet: collaborative interaction in virtual puppetry, by Paolo Bottoni et al. Communication, 16 pages, in [Adams]
- Experiments in digital puppetry, with WII and Quartz Composer.Ian Grant: Communication, 16 pages, in [Adams]

Digital puppetry will be incorporated into a situation comedy by Joe Roth’s Revolution Television. A note in Hollywook reporter 8/8/2011.

Pyramid :
- Gaussian pyramid. A method to build low resolutions digital signals , [Bres]p. 83 sq.
- stochastic pyramid , for segmentation , [Bres]p. 254-57.
- [Cocquerez]

Pyrotechnics
- Fireworks. The big shows are today computer controlled, music including/
- Use of fire in artistic effects, more or less combined with robots Greathouse labs.
- Beware, pyrotechnics may be dangerous!

 

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