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IBM's Watson machine wins the Jeopardy game.

- Synapse. See note (in French) by Silicon.
< Final Jeopardy. Man vs Machine and the Quest to know Everything. by Stephen Baker. Boston, Houghton Miffiln Harcourt, 2011.
- Watson Machine See specific note.
- Deep Blue. The machine which won on chess against Kasparov. Read Behind Deep Blue., by Feng-Hsiung Hsu. Princeton university press 2002. See [Berger-Lioret] p.48.
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 35, 133. More in French.
< Art et ordinateur. IBM Informatique, 1975. Quotes notably Vera Molnar.
- Provided computer time to Benoit Mandelbrot to elaborate on the fractals.

iBorne3D Interactive stand combining 3D scanner and autostereoscopic screens.

ICC. International Color Consortium.

Printing an image on an IBM 1401 : a cinch of humor and art in a very business minded industry

Ichbiah Daniel.
< Les synthétiseurs. De la découverte à la maîtrise. by D. Ichbiah. Eyrolles 2000.
< La musique sur Internet by Daniel Ichbiah. Dunod 2000.
< Cyberculture. Anne Carrière 1998.

Icom. International Council of Museums
- Avicon colloquium. In Montreal for 2012. Digital topics are on the program.

Icids. International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling. 3d edition: 1-3 Nov. 2010.

Idatte Paul
< Clefs pour la cybernétique. Seghers 1969. This small book hosts a good chapter "Cybernétique et esthétique" which includes, as a cybernetic feature, the trial-and-error creation process. In two pages are listed the artists : Schöffer, Takis, Agam, Martial Raysse, Alain Jacquet, the EAT, Robert Rauschenberg, Billy Kluver and Pierre Henry.

Idhec Wikipedia . In 1986, Idhec became Femis.

Marcin Ignac : Cinder Medusae.

Ideo. Design firm. 4 pages in [Cameron]. Interactive installations.

Iduun. A collective for stage arts, founded in 2006 by Philippe Chaurand (engineer and author of the Millumin software for audio-video performance) and Barthélemy Antoine-Loeff > Kadâmbii (2011);
> Exil (2007). Hybrid work, with installation.

Igloo. Dance. A group formed by Ruth Gibson and Bruno Martelli. In 2013, seems more oriented on interactive environment than on dance performing.
Quoted in Interagir avec les technologies numériques, Nouvelles de Danse. Condredanse, Bruxelles 2004.
> In search of Abandoned (2013). Video installation.
> Windowsninetyeight (1996).

Ignac Marcin.
> 3000 Realtime Art Variations for 3000 Worldwide Museums (2015) with Henryk Wollik. An interview of Ignac.
> Crystal Infection (2011). Web page with substantial comments.
> Cinder Medusae (2010). Made with Cinder software.

Ihmels Tjark.
< The methodology of generative art". An essay by Tjark Ihmels and Julia Riedel.
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 122.

Ihnatowicz Edward
> The Senster (1970,1974). A large picture in [Lieser].

IIM. Institut Internet & Multimedia. Pôle universitaire Léonard de Vinci.
< A Bio-Inspired Emotion Engine in the Living Joconde, by Jean-Claude Heudin. Proceedings of Laval Virtual VRIC 2015.

Ikam Catherine (with Louis Fléri). Site Ubikam.
> Faces (2014) Interactive installation. With the technical cooperation of Thams Muller.
> Portrait Particles 1 et 2 (2014 c.), prints.

Ikam: Interactive portrait of Oscar in real time.

> Aucun homme n'est une île (2013), by Fabrice Melchiot and Catherine Ikam. A show for teen-agers.
> Portrait au noir
(2013) by Catherine Ikam and Louis (implementatio by Thomas Mulle), Albert Benhamou gallery.
> Interactive real time portraits (2005).
> Oscar (2005). Quoted with a picture by [artpress 2015].
> Aucun homme n'est une île (2013). Text by Fabrice Melquiot, sound and stage setting Roland Auzet, electronics Olivier Pasquet, reality virtual design of the Oscar Character, Catherine Ikam et Louis Fleri, video environment Arié Van Egmond. Spectacle for children. See page. - [Couchot 2007] p. 266.
- [Popper 2] 251-253 , with photos of Elle et Lui.
< Lui (2003).
> Elle (1999). Photo in [Moulon] p.48.

Ikeda Ryoji.
> Superpositions (2012)
> Datamatics (2004). Audiovisual performance. Quoted by [Moulon] p. 23-24 with a performance picture.
> The Transfinite (2011). Street spectacle. Web page. Quoted by {Worms,2012].

Ile-de-France. See our "geographical guide".

ILK. Graphist and illustrator.
- Interview by Florient Chavanon in Créanum, Sept-Oct. 2010).

- Umbra Viventis (2012). More data.

Imagina. Site web 2012. See French note.

I-Maginer Interactive 3D environments.

Imagix3D. The first 3D animation software solf off the shelf. Paris ACM Siggraph page.

Imal. Artistic center in Brussels. Yves Bernard, director and artistic director.
- Yves Bernard holds an important collection of artistic CD-Roms.
- Exposition Overtoon, Spring 2013. Website. Our note on the Brussels digital spring in 2013.
- Early 2012 The program .
- Symposium Tangible Feelings about brain-to-brain communication, Sept. 2011. Our visit and mail exchanges with curators and artists.

i.materialize Blog about 3D printing.

Imax. Image Maximum. A film format. Wikipedia: Digital Imax : Because 70mm film and projectors are costly and difficult to mass produce, Imax debuted a digital projection system in 2008. It uses two projectors that can present either 2D or 3D content in DCI or Imax Digital Format (IDF) (which in itself is a superset of

Imera. (Marseille, France) An Institute for Advanced Study, or IAS (Institut d’Etudes Avancées, IEA). Its purpose is to offer residency programs for high-level international researchers (scientists and artists), both confirmed and emerging, of all disciplines, so as to provide them with an opportunity to meet, carry out work requiring several months of freedom from administrative or teaching duties, and

I'm in . A company dealing with virtual reality.

Les Immatériaux. Exposition held in Centre Pompidou in 1985, curated by Jean-François Lyotard.
- A site by Centre Pompidou. "Les immatériaux, 25 ans après" .
- [Graham Ber] comments and considers this event as "ground breaking".

Immersion. Visual simulation et virtual reality solutions.

IMP. Immersive music painter. A Virtools function (software now in Dassault portfolio). Choose string dimension, particle life duration...

Imperiale Alicia. Architect, artist, théorist. Her page at the Pratt Institute.
< New flatness, surface tension in digital architecture. Birkhauser 2000.

Ina : control room for the permanent recording of public broadcasts.

INA Institut national de l'audiovisuel.

< Caillois hypermédiatement. Article by Jean Segura. 1999
< The catalog of Ina Expert education, from strategy to video games, including transmedia (in French)
- First meeting of the Ina expert club. Meeting between animation films and real filming (Sonovision, 5/2012)
- The Ina Sup club talks about transmedia (Sonovision, 5/2011).
- Inathèque de France, consultation center for audiovisual media. Website
- Pixel-INA awards, the credits. Film directed by Frédéric Nagorny for Imagina 1992. The Paris ACM Siggraph page.
- Interview of Gilbert Dutertre by Stic-Hebdo (June 2005).

Inavouable (La commmunauté).
> Médée (2009).
> Hamlet-machine (2001). Website.
- 22 pages signed Clyde Chabot in [Garbagnati].
- En 1983, Maurice Blanchot wrote a book under this title (Editions de Minuit), of which the first pages are on line.

Incheon. In this town near Seoul (Korea), was held in 2010 the Incheon Digital Art Festival (Report in SJNA), with notably as artists : Yang Min-Ha, Chang Young-gyu, Hah Tasoc and Ko Seung-wok. Collective including Vadim Bernard,   Grégory Chatonsky,   Marika Dermineur , Reynald Drouhin,  KRN, Claude Le Berre and Julie Morel.

Indestructibles (Les) In the Top 10 on animation films broadcasted on TV (TF1).
> Les indestructibles (2010 c.).

India. See our geographical guide.

Industrie Design Prototypes . Modeling and simulation.

Ingenhoven Christoph. Cabinet Ingenhoven Architects.
> Main station in Stuttgart. (2007) Technical description in [Burry].

Ingres Jean-Auguste Dominique. A practicioner of collage. See Ingres Collages by Adrien Goetz (Le passage, Musée Ingres 2005).

INHA. Institut national d'histoire de l'art (Paris).

Inkscape. Vectorial graphic editor, Open Source. Do not confuse with Inscape.
> Inkscape (2000 c.) Software.

Innocent Troy. Photos and graphics.
< Colony: An Urban Art Environment (2009). December 13th.
> Scenes from Ludea (2006 c.) Siggraph 2006. Commented at large by [Whitelaw].
> Iconica (1998 and still on line in 2014). A language and icons game.

Inria. Institut national de recherche en informatique et automatique.
- Openvibe. Brain to brain communication software.
- Inria organizes Miccai SH No 28 (manifestations).
< Histoire d'un pionnier de l'informatique. 40 ans de recherche à l'Inria. by Alain Beltran and Pascal Griset. EDP Sciences 2007.

Inscape Software for development of interactive stories (Interactive storytelling).
- Do not confuse with Inkscape (drawing software, above).
< Visual scenario representation in the context of a tool for interactive storytelling. by Martyn Dade-Robertson : 10 pages in [Cavazza].

Insektors Series of films produced by Fantôme from 1990 to 1996. See Paris ACM Siggraph page.
> Insektors (1990).

Insight. This institution supports the visualization of documents about Antiquity, notably Egypt and Pre-Colombian America.

INT. Institut national des télécommunications. (National Institute for Telecommunications), France.

Interface Z. Aims to help artists in the easy realization of interactive installations (Indicated by Anne-Claire Berger).
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 159.

Internet. See Web.
- See Internet from the transmedia standpoint.
- A lot in Digital Storytelling. A creator's guide to interacdtive entertainment. [Miller, 2014].

Intersculpt, the annual show of digital sculpture .

Intersculpt The French annual meeting of digital sculpture.

d'Inverno Mark.
< Computers and Creativity, ed. by Jon McCormack and Mark d'Inverno. Springer 2012. The announcement.

The Invisible Man In Blind Love
> The invisible man in blind love (1991). A film written and directed by Pascal Vuong, produced by Eurocitel.

Iocose. A collective
> In the Long Run (2010). Cinema ?

> WebStalker (1997). Web art. [Paul].

Iotacenter. Site dedicated to abstract animation (algorithmic art + music). Los Angeles.

Ipac. International Paros Art Center (Greece).

Iphone (iPhone). See smartphone.

Ippolito Jon (Frank Keith and Cohen Janeet).
> The Unreliable Archivist (1998), Web. [Paul].

Ircam Institut de recherche et de coordination acoustique/musique.
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 38, 165. 10 pages about its origins in in [Baudouin]
- More in French.
> Composition assistée par ordinateur (CAO) by Gerard Assayag. In Proceedings of Asti 2001 Conference. The Ircam position in 2001, with historic notes.

Iris and Cedar

Isaacson Léonard. Musician. Worked with Hiller for:
> The Illiac suite for string quartet (1956).

Arata Isozaki : Qatar Education City, Convention Center.

Isart Digital . A school for videogames, animation films, 3D animation and Web mobile games.
- These Isart students Jonathan Lévy, Diego Verastegui and Maxime Orhnial received the TFOU animation award in Annecy 2011.

Isdant Raphael. Interactive animation. General topic: information mashup. "No so my ideas than what people do with them".
> Heartquake (2012). Interactive animation. Give life to actuality. Could be compared to Moben's Mécanique des émotions.
> Hekkah (2010) . Facebook and installation
> Holocene (2009)
> A Battre (2007).

Isea. Internal symposium on Electronic arts. "Founded in the Netherlands in 1990, ISEA International (formerly Inter-Society for the Electronic Arts) is an international non-profit organisation fostering interdisciplinary academic discourse and exchange among culturally diverse organisations and individuals working with art, science and technology. The main activity of ISEA International is the annual International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA)"

Isenberg Tobias. University of Calgary (Canada).
- Co-president, with Douglas Cunningham, of Computational Aesthetics 2011.
< Breaking the pixel barrier. by Tobias Isenberg, M. Sheelag, T. Carpendale and Mario Costa Sousa. Communication at Computational Aesthetics 2005.

Isis. GDR Isis Information, signal, image and vision.
- Interview of the manager Patrick Flandrin AH No 55.

Islam. See also Middle East.
- Islamic automation : a reading of Al-Jazari's The book of knowledge of Ingenious mechanical devices (1206). by Gunalan Nadarajan. 16 pages in [Grau].

Isley Vicky. Computer Animation
A current research strand considers the creative potential of mathematical models describing environmental and biological processes to create poetic landscapes. Using artificial life to describe the complex dynamics of these systems boredomresearch aim to foster a deeper appreciation of the unintuitive relationship between mathematical models and their observable results.
Of key interest to this body of work are models exhibiting non-deterministic behaviour especially where this may present problems for evaluating outcomes. The research looks at interpreting the spatial and temporal patterns from an aesthetic perspective hoping to gain insights at the intersection of artistic and scientific disciplines.
> Boredom Research (2017). A collaboration between British artists Vicky Isley and Paul Smith

Isobe Yukuhisa.
> Dream Reel (1969) by Jud Yalkut and Yukihisa Isobe. Performance multimedia. Three pages in [Youngblood] with photos.

Isozaki Arata. Architect. Wikipedia.
> Qatar Education City Convention Center (2011). Technical description in [Burry]. The structure mimics the Sidra tree.
- Quoted by [Berger-Lioret] p. 83. , by [Bonnefoy] p. 389.

Israel. See our geographiy of digital creatione.

Thomas Israel : Métacrâne

Israël Thomas. Digital artist. Contemporary webpage. Galerie Charlot page.
> Skinstrap (2014). Projection on skin.
< Memento Body. La lettre volée. Ante Post, Bruxelles 2013.
> SK I Strap (2012). Video performance in Brussels.
- A note about Israël at Charlot's. (2013).
- Will Israel go generative ? (Sept. 2012).
> Metacrane (2009)

Italy. See our "geographical guide".

Itecom Multimedia education.

Itey Sophie. A member of Les Morphogénistes group.
> Soft Dress (2012).

Ito Shun. Dance then animated sculptures.
> Comic Birds (2014 c.)

Ito Toyo. Architect.
> Island City Central Park (2005) in Fukuoka (Japon). Technical description in [Burry].

Itten Johannes.
< The Art of Color: the subjective experience and objective rationale of color. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold

Ive Jonathan. Designer. Wikipedia.
>iMac G3 computer body (1998). One specimen in Victoria & Albert Museum.

Iwai Toshio. Graphism.
> Morphovision-Distorted house (2005) Quoted by [Grau] p. 282, plus a color picture.
> ICE, Interactive Communication Experience. (2005) with Klein Dytham Architecture. in Bloomberg headquarters. 2 pages in [Cameron] with a picture.
> Resonance of 4 (1994). An image in Codognet.

Iwamoto Lisa. Architect, professor à University of California (Berkeley).
< Digital Fabrications. Architectural and Material Techniques. Princeton Architectural Press, 2009.
> In-Out Curtain (2005) Construction by folding, explained in the book above.
> Digital Weave (2004). Also a construction by folding.

Iwata Hiroo. Interaction.
> Floating Eye (2000) Quoted by [Grau] p. 284.

Izam Cyril. Graphic artist, with Photoshop and C4D. An article in Créanum, June-July-August 2011.






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