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G

 

Gabor. An alternative to Fourier Transform. [Bres] p. 284-290.
<Gabor Noise by Example by  Bruno Galerne, Ares Lagae, Sylvain Lefebvre, George Drettakis. See Kuleuven page.   .

GADD. Geometric atmospheric density distribution models (for textures and modeling) [Ebert] pp. 532 sq.

Gaea. "Earth wise" texture [Ebert] pp. 467-472.

Galleries for digital art. See our geographical guide.

Game, gameplay. See special notice.

Gamma. [Brinkmann], [Gonzalez], [Ebert] for texture corrections, [Photoshop].

Gap. Art needs a gap between constraints and resources. See Digital Universe.

Gardening. May be seen as a generative art, see [Berger-Lioret] p. 108, 112.

Garment. See fabric.

Gas. A lot of data about their modeling and rendering in [Ebert].

Gastronomy. See cooking.

Gender.
- Women are nearly 20% of digital artists. See our statistics, which show that the proportion of women among digital artists is evolving very slowly. On Oct. 2014,
- "Girls are "geeks" as well as others" (Rémi Mistry, a 2 pages article in A nous Paris, 5/30/2011). 18% of the artists are women, 82% men.
- Ladymation: a round table within Onedozero festival 2010. (Computer Arts, 2/2011). Not really convincing .
< Quelle place pour les femmes dans la création musicale au XXIE siècle, by Sophie Stévance, in Composer au XXIe siècle, edited by Sophie Stévance, Vrin 2010.

Generation, generative, generator. Generative art mainly uses genetic algorithms, but the concept is wider. art algorithmique, avec une orientation vers un développement progressif de l'oeuvre.
< L'art génératif, quand la création flirte avec la programmation, by Simon Brousseau.
< Ten questions concerning computer generative art (2012).
< L'art génératif. Jouer à Dieu... un droit ? un devoir by Pierre Berger and Alain Lioret. L'Harmattan 2012. See its summary and online complements on [ Berger-Lioret 2012].
- Site Generative Artwork.
- Procedural generation, see Wikipedia. See also LIRIS ( Laboratoire d'InfoRmatique en Image et Systèmes d'information de Lyon):  Génération procédurale de rivières et de terrains by Jean-David Génevaux, Eric Galin, Eric Guérin, Adrien Peutavie et Beldřich Deneš. - PCG (Procedural content generation, see Wikidot
< Generative art. A practical guide using processing. Manning Publications 2011.
- Philip Galanter maintains a dedicated wiki. See his Bibliography.
- A major book: [Whitelaw].
< Avatars 3D réalistes et applications génétiques by Regina Radlova (doctorante Arts et Technologies de l'Image - Université Paris VIII), has been presented on march 29, 2011 at Paris ACM Siggraph.

< Design génératif. Concevoir, programmer, visualiser. by Hartmut Bohnacker, Benedikt Gross, Julia Laub and Claudius Lazzeroni. Paris, Pyramid 2010 .
- Varia.
- Adaptive generation. (Bootz) .
- Form generators. See [Berger-Lioret] p. 172-173, 149.

An image of Jérémie Werner, on his portfolio Evasion.

Genetics, genetic art
- Genetic art: an art mainly built on crossover and fitness criteria. It may be seen as a a sub-genre of generative art.
- Algorithms, programming, textures [Ebert].
- Artificial life [Whitelaw], Lioret.
<Art in the Age of Technoscience: Genetic Engineering, Robotics and Artificial Lie in Contemporary Art. Springer Wien, New-Yor 2009.
- A kind of Dictionary of genetic art (not updated since 2003).
< Avatars 3D réalistes et applications génétiques, by Regina Radlova. Online Communication (on Paris ACM Siggraph).
- Genetic art, see terminology.

Genre
- Art genres:
. The theory of genres of art dates back to Aristoteles, in his poetics (text online by Bywater).
. In interaction design see [Janet Murray].
- About sex, see gender).

Geodetic. Geodetic deals with form measurement, and adds on traditional geometry with a specific distance. [Bres] p. 319. See also [Agoston].

Geography, geomatics.
- Our geographical guide (concrete geography of digital creation).
- Locative Media.
< Développements logiciels en géomatique, by B. Bucher and F. Florence Le Ber (Eds.). Hermès-Lavoisier 2012.

Gesture: they are perceived through motion capture. Here on the website of FreeMotionFiles.

Geometry.
- Programming: [Brinkmann], [Gonzalez],  [Processing]...
- Mathematics: [Agoston] (practical drive), Theoretical orientation See also:

< Computational Information Geometry for Image and Signal Processing, Springer 2017.
< Geometric Sciences of Information (GSI), Springer, Paris 2017
< Topological and Geometrical Structures of Information (TGSI), Springer 2017
< Differential Geometry on Computer Vision and Machine Learning, Springer 2017

Topology, Symmetry.
< Discrete Geometry for Computer Imagery, by Rocio Gonzalez-Diaz, Maria-Jose Jimenez, Belen Medrano. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Volume 7749. Springer 2013.
- Architecture: "a multiplication of alternative geometrics, which demanded the development of new judgment criteria" [Picon] (our translation).

Germ [Cocquerez]. A segmentation method by growth of the regions from germs.

Gesamtkunstwerke. A total work of art. Aesthetical concept. Wagner is the forereunner in it. See Total art.

Gesture. See expression.

Goggles for virtual reality. A test on the site of abc.net.

Gimp . Software. See proper nouns .

GKS. (Image) Graphics kernel system.
- Computer Graphics Programming. GKS The graphic standard. by G. Eenderle, A.K. Kansy and G. Plaff. Springer Verlag. 1987 (?).
- Le système graphique GKS. by F. Hopgood et al. Masson 1986.

Glass, glasses.
- Filter [Photoshop].
- A smartphone in your glasses. (2012).
- Des lunettes qui en mettent plein la vue. 5 pages in Planète Robots Sept.Oct 2012
- Google glasses, an article in pddnet.

Google glasses

Glitch. Wikipedia: a short-lived fault in a system. It is often used to describe a transient fault that corrects itself, and is therefore difficult to troubleshoot. It may be used as an aesthetic process, like the grain of wool, film or paper. - Video compression/decompression glitches are used by Jacques Perconte.
- An article by Rob Meyers in Furtherfield, 5/23/2013 (indicated to us by Valentina Peri).

Glove. See Data glove.

Glyph. Character independent of the font used.

GM. General Midi. The whole of the General Midi standard. See Midi, Sound

Shading: flat and Gouraud, according to HowStuffWorks.

Goggles. See Glasses.

Gold, golden.
- Shading see metal.
- Golden section, see Pythagoras.

Gouraud. Shading.

GPS. See Locative media.
- In interaction design see [Janet Murray].

GPU

GPU.
- Graphical processor unit. A lot in [Ebert].
- Standard Open CL wikipedia . Language for GPU programming. Not for amateurs.

Gradation. [Roxame], [Flash].

Gradient.
- [Bres] p. 216 and other pages. [Cocquerez] p. 146 introduces the morphological gradient. See also [Gonzalez], [Processing], [Siarry], [Roxame], [Photoshop].
- Noise and gradient [Ebert].

Grain. A sort of defect in an image, a textured noise, soft of.

Graphics find their main applications in games and cinema. Here "Poulet Free", by de Romain Balloy, Leo Ewald, Caroline Hirbec, Jennifer Ivry, Christophe Kuntz, Yves Janvion-Nangoh and Jolberto Quini Piragire (students in Isart Digital), a film seledted for the Computer Animation Festival of Siggraph 2012.

Grammar.
- A major form of elementarization. It may be used for analysis as well as synthesis (generative grammars). See L-systems., use notably in art by Miguel Chevalier.

- [Gonzalez] Grammar of trees.   
< Grammaire des arts du dessin . 1863 [Blanc]. This books is an attempt to present all the arts (but mainly architecture) as ruled by a grammar (for instance the three classical orders: Doric, Ionian, Corinthian). Since then, this approach has inspired a lot of architects, as shows at length [Picon], and perhaps even the Cubists through Cézanne?

- [Stiny] George Stiny and James Gips propose a grammar of forms, inspired by the generative grammars of Chomsky. This approach is never quoted in image processing or algorist literature. But she was never forlorn, as shows a review presented in 1999 by Gips during a MIT symposium. Computer implementations of shape grammars, by Gips in MIT symposium. Available Online (PDF). It contains a list of 26 forms grammars, several of which are available as softwaretools.
- A grammar to build coffee machines, by Agarwal and Cagan (1998 Online).

 

grammar
An example of graphical grammar: some rules from the Agarwal and Cagan grammar for coffee machines design. .

Granular Synthesis. Wikipedia.
- A music synthesis technique.
- A group of artists multimedia

Graph.
- Scene graph. Wikipedia.
- Programming. Dealt at large by [Bres] and [Cocquerez]. See also [Gonzalez].
- In interaction programming, see [Thimbleby].

Graphical, graphics.
< Advances in Image and Graphics Technologies by Tieniu Tan, Qiuqi Ruan, Xilin Chen, Huimin Ma, Liang Wang. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Volume 363. Springer 2013.
- Is art and graphics different? See Nick Lambert's thesis Computer art.
< The Magic of Computer Graphics, by Noriko Kurachi. CRC Press 2011
- Graphical processor. See GPU.
- Eurographics in Grenoble. SH No 26 (actu), SH No 22 (manifestations).
- 16th Afig symposium AH No 128 (on home page).
- Actes de Smart Graphics 2003. Springer 2003. AH No 122.
- State of things in computer graphics AH No 97 (concepts).
- Jacques Bollot, graphical research AH No 81 (détente).
- Graphic fills formats: they are explained on the daubnet website.
< Atari ST. Guide du graphisme. by Georges Fagog-Barraly. Sybex 1988.
< Sémiologie graphique. Diagrammes, réseaux, cartographie. by Jacques Bertin. Gauthier-Villars/Mouton 1967.
< Computer Graphics, Principles and practice. by James Foley et al. Addison Wesley, 2d edition1990.
< Graphic tools for software engineering. by A. Kilgour et R. Earnshaw. Cambridge university press, 1989.

- See image, color, GKS, interaction.

Graphomaton. A foretelling idea: a drawing machine, thought of by the music composer Joseph Schillinger (before WW2). He sees that as a transform of serialist music.

agam
The Graphomaton, a concept elaborated by Schillinger.

Grass. Texture [Ebert].

Gray, grayscale.
- code [Gonzalez]. 
- level s[Gonzalez], [Roxame], [Processing], [Photoshop].

Grid
- Java Gridbag. [Java], [Processing].

Gröbner. [Agoston], [Cox].

Group. See crowd.
< Groups and crowd simulation, a chapter signed Soraia Raupp Musso, Branislav Ulieny and Amaury Aubel, in [Magnenat].
- Group creation. See collaborative.

Region growing, a method for segmentation. Scheme from a tutorial by A.D. Marshall.

Growing.
- Region growing [Cocquerez] p. 306, or pixels aggregation. A bottom up method to build regions.

GUI. Graphical user interface.
- See Interaction.

Guitar. See more on French version.


 

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