Saturation variation starting from a normal photograph, and going to minimal (left) or maximal (right) , as shown in Wikipedia (French).
- In graphic arts;
. Color vividness. [Brinkmann] [Foley]. Wikipedia.
. Examples of code, test the in real Roxame (code source shown).
- In music:
. Level beyond which the sound is no longer correctly emitted.
. Something like timbre.
- More in French.
Scale, scaling .
- Programming, colors. [Brinkmann], [Photoshop].
- About the importance of scale effects on art evaluation and comparisons, see Le Musée imaginaire, by Malraux.
- "Any projected or broadcasted image asks a scale question. In front of faces close-up... juxtaposing different scales... so creating a non fusional vision set, disjointed, where imagination finds multiple gaps to infiltrate" [Picon-Vallin]. p. 28.
- For music, one base of digitalization.
- A basic form of digitization (color, music).
- See [Roads].
- Scanography. a form of art (Wikipedia). Arts: Joseph Scheer for example.
- With laser or several cameras, digitization may be 3D.
< Du scanner aux images numériques. by Jean Segura. Agfa Gevaert/Nathan 1989.
- Scheme in interaction design see [Janet Murray].
A scene graph, from an IBM Tutorial about Java graphics.
- Objects are often built at first in a local space. Then theyt are placed in a shared space, or scene, by an instantiation operation. [Ebert] .
- Scene graph Wikipedia.
. OpenSG: Tool (open source) to create scene graphs.
. See for instance the mémoire of AlexandraWolyniec.
- Reconnaissance des formes et analyse de scènes, by Murat Kunt et al. Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes, 2000.
School. Art schools.
- Some schools offering a digital art cursus:; EMCA, Enjmin, Ensad, Lisaa, Sup-Infocom Valenciennes, Sup-Infocom Arles, Gobelins, Isart Digital... In Canada: NAD (Montréal).
< Guide des formations (cinéma, audiovisuel, multimédia), by Vidéadoc (6th édition, 2010/2011). An advice.
Science. See special notice about art and science.
- Some sequencers can automatically draw scores.
< Conductus 1, une partition en mouvement (a moving score). by Jérôme Blais, in Composer au XXIe siècle, ed. by Sophie Stévance, Vrin 2010.
- Malleable score: Inventing malleable scores: from paper to screen based scores. by Arthur Clay. 15 pages in [Adams].
- Iannis Xenakis pushed very far the use of graphics in this domain.
- See scale, music .
Screen, display .
A visual display device. See projection.
- Des écrans trop sophistiqués ? Le Parisien 23/1/2015.
- Screens. Viewing media. Installation art. by Kate Mondloch. University of Minnesota Press. 2010.
- L'écran, de l'icone au virtuel. La résistance de l'infigurable, by Stéphane Katz. L'Harmattan 2004.SH No 27 (concepts).
- L'écran dans l'écran, et autres rectangles scopiques, by Bernard Leconte, L'Harmattan 2004. SH No 24 (concepts).
- The Plato's cave as the first mention of an image projection of some sort.
- The magic lantern, for still painted images, is developed in the 18th century
- Cinema gives a new impetus on 20th century
- CRT appear for television in the 1930's and will be used for computing from the 1960's. Smaller and cheaper models are developed.
- Powerful projectors, after WW2, allow light shows and projections on monuments
- LCD screens offer cheaprer, and flat screens, with a wider range of sizes, from small ones (cell phones) to largee ones (living room TV)
- LED screens appear in the 2010's, and are useful in particular for projection in open air with daylight
- Very small devices are used for goggles and Google glasses.
- Opererator [Brinkmann] .
- Screen space [Ebert] deals with issues raised in rendering in order to adapt it.
- The small screen features in transmedia, see [Bernardo], p.56-57 and others.
- More in French.
"In an American cinema industry, where the scenarist concept becomes more and more astract, with nearly ten of them working on the same film... " (Samuel Blumenfeld, dans Le Monde Magazine du 7/9/2011, our translation).
An image from pianoweb website.
Sculptor, sculpture. See special notice.
See. See vision.
Segmentation. An operation which starts from a pixellated image and cuts it in regions. Used more by industry or medicine than by artists.
- Applications and Processing code in Roxame, see Roxame classes
< Interactive visualization for neck-dissection/ planning, part of an IEEE tutorial about illustration. As far as we know, no artist uses presently this kind of technique.
- A lot in [Cocquerez], [Gonzalez], [Gonzalez],[Open CV].
- See our (philosophical) notes about fragmentation.
The place of semantics in Web, according to M.K. Bergman.
Semantics. See meaning, semiology.
< Sémantique et multimodalité en analyse de l'information. by M. Campedel and P. Hoogstoel eds. Hermès Lavoisier 2011.
- In interaction design see [Janet Murray].
- Rules [Gonzalez].
- Brain, neurosciences [Gazzaniga].
< Sémantique et corpus. by A. Condamines ed. Hermès/Lavoisier 2004. SH No 48 (concepts).
< Spinning the semantic web, by Dieter Fensel and al. (MIT Press 2003) SH No 05 (biblio)
- Semantics and ontology AH No74 (interview)
< Filtrage sémantique. De l'annotation à la navigation textuelle. by J.L.Minel (ed.) Hermès Lavoisier 2009.
- Are semantics a major aspect of art critics? Or not?
Semanticize. Action of making an information or an information system more semantic. See an interview of Alain Garnier AH No 127 .
< Physique et technologie des semiconducteurs, by Francis Lévy. Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes. 1995.
< International diffusion of technology. The case of semi-conductors. by K. Tilton.Brookings Institution, Washington DC 1971.
<Revolution in miniature. The history and impact of semiconductor electronics. by Ernest Braun and Stuart Macdonald. Penguin Book, 1970.
- Generally, semiconductors are included in devices, not visible by the spectator. One exception: Alain Le Boucher.
Sign: a beautiful evidence on zeboute-blog website.
The two terms are rather similar. To say short: semiology deals with signs, generally speaking. Semiotics deal with particular categories of signs.
< Vers une sémiotique générale du temps dans les arts. by Emmanuelle Rix and Marcel Formosa, eds. MIM/IDEAC 2005
< Sémiotique, linguistique et modélisation, by Eléna Chingareva-Slavine. Hermès/Lavoisier 2002. AH No 100 (concepts) and AH No 107 (biblio).
< Sémiotique narrative et textuelle. by Claude Chabrol ed. Larousse 1973.
< Analyse sémiologique et histoire de l'art.by Marie-Salomé Lagrange. Klincksieck 1973.
< Sémiologie graphique. Diagrammes, réseaux, cartographie. by Jacques Bertin. Gauthier-Villars/Mouton 1967.
- See meaning. (article by Anne Nicolle).
- Association Art sensitif.
Sensor. See perception.
Kinect, by Microsoft. One of the most interesting sensing device (in 2012).
Sentiment. See emotion. Sentiment analysis may be considered a synonym of opinion mining.
< Techniques and Applications for Sentiment Analysis. by Ronen Feldman. Communications of the ACM, April 2013. More marketing than art.
- Music. Formerly a dedicated tool, it is today a software. A tracker is a simplified sequencer.
< Cybernetic Serendipity, by Jasia Reichardt (ed.). Frederick A. Praeger, 1969.
Serial, serial, serialism.
- "For Thema (Omaggio a Joyce), a play done for electronic device, designed in 1958, Berio (composer) recorded his spouse declaming the beginning of Sirèes chapter, from Ulysses, by James Joyce, known for the whirlwind of images it stirs and for a literary structure near to serialism". [Ross] p. 612. (our translation from French). < L'appareil musical. by Dominique Avron. UGE 1978. A structural and technical approach.
- In the early 1960's, the old fascination for serialism and random had let the place to a revived interest for sound texture, more immediately "visible". [Ross] p. 613.
Set design, set designer . "The relationship is strong and the border very thin between the person who directs the actors (the director) ant the one who places them (the set designer")" (Wikipedia).
- Education at CECN CECN (9/2011).
- Use of computers for design and simulation. Very complex issues. See theater.
- Setup (of a page) . In every text processing software, somehow.
Sewing. See fabric.
- Seam, seamless: issues to be addressed when several images are placed side by side, or when a same image is projected through several projectors.
Weird Science, by John Hughes, one of the first films evoking the synthetic woman.(1985).
SFM. Structure from motion. Wikipedia.
Shade, shading, shadow.
- Most famed shadings: Gouraud, Phong… Wikipedia gives a list of shading algorithms.
- [Brinkmann], [Foley], [Photoshop].
- Dealt with at length by [Ebert].
< CrossShade: Shading Concept Sketches Using Cross-Section Curves by Adrien Bousseau.
- See AH No66 (interview).
Shape . See form.
- In transmedia, "... because of all the collaborative elements of creating a show, you need ultimately one person to unify all the elements and push forward your plan." [Bernardo].
Sight. See vision
- Analyse et traitement des signaux - Méthodes et applications au son et à l'image. by Etienne Tisserand, Jean-François Pautex and Patrick Schweitzer. Dunod 2004.
- Traitement numérique du signal, une introduction. by W. Van Den Enden and Niek Verhoeckx. Dunod 1992
Significance propagation. [Gonzalez].
Silhouette. An art technique, used notably in illustration.
Silkscreen, silkscreen print. A printing technique, used directly for artistic effects (a way of painting) or to more industrial processes, such as integrated circuits manufacturing or fabric coloring.
Similarity between images. Document retrieval AH No 08 (actu). A lot has been published since this 2004 (short) paper.
Simplicial complex, an example from Wikipedia.
Simplexity, simplicity. These concepts are developed around complexity. See aesthetics.
- La simplexité. by Alain Berthoz. Eyrolles 2009.
- Simplicity theory. by Jean-Louis Dessalles 2008-2010. Online.
- Introduction au traitement d'images, Simulation sous Matlab. by G. Burel. Hermès/Lavoisier 2001.
- More in French.
Sixen. Acoustic instrument developed by Ircam.
- [Bres] deals of this in several places and says notably (p.321): "Skeleton is an important concept, used both for representation and for patterns characterization".
- See [Cocquerez], [Gonzalez].
< Sketch-Based Shape Retrieval by Tamy Boubekeur.
Skin rendering. An example of problzm dealt with on Code 517 blog.
- A rendering problem.
< Rendering of skin and clothes, by Neeharika Adabala, in [Magnenat].
- Soft sensors on the skin, see University of Illinois (8/2011).
< Skinput: Appropriating the Skin as an Interactive Canvas. An 8 paper, signed Chris Harrison, Desney Tan and Dan Morris in Communications of the l'ACM, august 2011.
Sky. "Sky and clouds are important. They play a key role in setting the ambient of your work and influence also its light" writes Simon Dominic (our translation), artist, in a 3 pages article Peindre des ciels avec ArtRage et Painter (Digital Artist, June-July
- Do art even when sleeping (nearly a hoax, but so nice!). See Soonsoon
Smart. See intelligent.
- Use of Iphone by a painter, David Hockney, met by François Jonquet in Artpress 11/2010. "You must go rapidly. If not, the line is thick. Beans are difficult. You have all the possible colors. You cannot come back upon a surface, there are no layers. That creates a specific finger technique... < L'art de l'iPhonograhie, by Stéphane Roberts. Eyrolles 2011.
Smear. Operator [Brinkmann].
Smiley. A beautiful collection on Dicofrance .
Social netwoks and media. See transmedia , tactical media.
- In relation with transmedia, several notes in [Rose] and a lot in [Bernardo]. A lot also in Digital Storytelling. A creator's guide to interacdtive entertainment. [Miller, 2014].
< Liberation Technology. Social media and the struggle for democracy. Edited by Larry Diamond and Marc Plattner. John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore 2012.
- In interaction design see [Janet Murray].
Sociology for tomoorrow... a comic page by Vouch (Le Monde, 9/12-13/2014). Caption: "And, darling, I must say that, since your accident, I have found you much easier to get along with" (our translation).
Sociologic, sociology . There are not so many things about sociology of art, but for the medias.
- Sociologic art is the specialty of Fred Forest, and is direclly related to media.
- In France, the Ministry of Culture publishes reports on Les pratiques culturelles des Français.
- See Menger, for a sociology of the world of arts, mainly in France.
- About television up to the 1980's, see Bowling alone., by Robert D. Putnam. Simon &Schuster 2000 (Several hundred dense pages with a lot of figures and curves).
Solid modeling. Modeling where objects are represented by solid primitives and not by a polygonal mesh.
Sound. See special notice.
Space. See special notice.
Spacing. The width of a character. A beautiful typography demands proportional spacing: a m is wider than an i.
Spatia, spatialization, spatializer. Wikipedia.
- Sound spatialization (simulation and space rendering) is a research domain at Ircam, AH No 114 (actualités) .
- In interaction design see [Janet Murray].
Spectator. This term is mainly used in sport. For theater of cinema, they say more: "member of the audience".
- See the term in the transmedia context.
- Audience, a lot in [Miller, 2014].
- The "perception motor" of Aziosmanoff is mainly oriented to audience perception.
- Attention, and duration of the attention, are important features of a work of art. So much so if it is interactive. See our post.
- It would be interesting to study the different physical positions of the spectators, since they import to the way the work is perceived, understood, lived with:
. seated in a hall, a cabin, before a desk.
. standing (typically in museum or gallery).
. lying on some couch (a work by Technomind), some immersive work shown at the Cube ; or deeply couched in a canapé (TV, games).
. lotus (a project by Judith Guez).
. walking (locative media in a town).
. moving and interacting physically, possibly with some material devices, or on a bike (Jeffrey Shaw, The legible city).
Speech. -See expression.
< Text, Speech and Dialogue by Petr Sojka , Aleš Horák , Ivan Kopeček , Karel Pala.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science , subseries: Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence . Volume 8655. Springer 2014.
- Speech recognititon and synthesis. 10 pages in Planète Robots, Sept-Oct 2012
< The voice in the machine. Building computers that understand speech. by Roberto Pieraccini. MIT Press 2012.
- Speech, as oral expression of the text, introduces the prosody issues.
- Encyclopédie de la parole groups a collective of poets, performers and plastic artists. Art 21 (issue 29, winter 2011) gives them 8 pages.
- For animated speech, the face also must move adequately. About this, a 29 pages chapter in Expressive speech animation and facial communication, in [Magnenat].
- Voice. Vocal aesthetics in digital arts and media. edited by Norie Neumark, Ross Bibson and Theo Van Leeuwen. MIT Press 2010.
Spill. suppression. [Brinkmann].
- Geometrical abstraction. [Faure-Walker].
- An important theme for the first Bauhaus Bauhaus (Kandinsky) and many 1930's artists, for instance Rudolf (Espace dynamique. Contredanse, Bruxelles 2003) for dancing.
< Du spirituel dans l'art et dans la peinture en particulier, by Wassily Kandinsky. Denoël 1969.
- See Alain Bittler
- [Murray] p.38. "Artists as divergent in form and vision as Nam June Paik, Reeves, Dawson and Viola have developed artworks that are often described, sometimes by the artists themselves, as soliciting a unifying, spiritualizing aesthetic in contrast to the shifting terrain of politics and identity". - "Cinema, considerdas psychomechanical, or spiritual automaton, reflects upon itself its content, its topics, its situations, its characters " (Deleuze, Cinéma 2. p. 343).
- More in French.
Spirograph. A form of mechanic art. The mathematician Bruno Abakanowicz invented the spirograph between 1881 and 1900. It Wikipedia. See a pleasant interactive visualization in Nathan Friend. See the historical context in our History.
Spline. A type of curves used in modeling, to represent smooth objects or to create trajectories, paths.
< Approximation hilbertienne. Spline-ondelettes-fractales. by M. Attéia and J. Gaches. EDP Sciences 1999.
< Mathématiques et CAO. Beta-splines. by Bartels Richard H., Beaty John C. and Barsky Brian A. Hermes 1988.
- Programming: [Foley], [Gonzalez], [Ebert].
More computers than players ! (Football Euro. Picture in Sonovision Broadcast June 2012).
Sport. An important application, or even a form of digital art by itself.
< Portfolio Sport et télévision. in Sonovision Oct. 2012. (after the Olympics).
- A term coined by Jenkins, Ford & Green for characterizing the transmedia affordances: "Spreadability refers to the potential - both technical and cultural - for audiences to share content for their own purposes, sometimes with the permission or right holders, sometimes against their wishes".
Square. A common figure, a kind of rectangle.
Stanford. A shading language [Ebert].
- Texture, see [Ebert].
- As subject of a work of art See the oeuvre of Turner or Monet, for instance.
- See text (storyttelling and transmedia (story-telling).
- A major reference: Digital Storytelling. A creator's guide to interacdtive entertainment. [Miller, 2014].
< Storyworlds across Media. Toward a Media-Conscious Narratology. by Marie-Laure Ryan and and Jan-Noël Thon (eds.) l : University of Nebraska Press 2014.
< Digital Narrative Taxonomy (2011), by Raquel Herrera Ferrer. An important document, including a useful bibliography. See also the Spanish version.
- The term has two facets:
1. (rather negative): tell stories to make unpleasant things accepted by public; typically: American western genre transforming the Indian genocide into a heroic epopy ; a large part of the Bible, or traditional "Hisoire de France" may be also seen as such. < Storytelling, by Christian Salman. La découverte. 2007.
2. (rather positive): build a story as a work of art ; an artist is somebody who has something to say, some history to tell. See below, virtual story telling.
- See Brooks: Story Architecture Vs. story structure.
- Computational story writing is dealt with by Masoud Yasdani in an on-line post.
- Virtual Story Generation: from TALE-SPIN to the Virtual Storyteller, by Laura Langohr is also online.
< Interactive Storytelling by Alex Mitchell , Clara Fernández-Vara , David Thue. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, volume 8832. Springer 2014.
< The Art of Immersion. How the Digital Generation Is Remaking Hollywood, Madison Avenue, And The Way We Tell Stories. by Frank Rose. New York 2011.
< Interactive Storytelling by David Oyarzun, Federico Reinado, R. Michael Young, Ane Elizalde, Gonzalo Méndez. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer 2012.
< Laughter, by Bergson. English text online. Interesting with its structural observations.
< Les trente-six situations dramatiques, by Georges Polti. Mercure de France 1934.
< Poetics, by Aristoteles. Still very interesting about story structures. Full text on line.
Note that post-modernism is opposed to modernism as opposing small narrations, databases, to the great narration.
String.- See musical instruments.
- Computing techniques: bit string, character string.
- Character string. Sets a lot of issues... technical as well as fascinating.
- [Gonzalez], [Java], [Processing].
- See [Foley], [Java], [Processing],[Roxame], [Photoshop].
- "Different stroke techniques or brush properties express a particular level of abstraction" ( IEEE tutorial about illustrative visualization).
Studio. See also lab.
- Studio nomade 16 pages signed Pierre Emberger, in KR home-studio, june 2011.
- The studio as musical instrument. Chapter 2 (32 pages) of [Moorefield].
- There is a dedicated shop Home Studio, in Pigalle district (Paris).
Style, stylized. See special notice
Subjective. (luminosity, reliability criteria) [Gonzalez].
Subpixel. Accuracy [Brinkmann] p.62. Quality of a filter able to process increments smaller than a pixel (important for animated images).
Superwhite. [Brinkmann] p. 243. Region whose luminosiy is at the color system maximum. It is so considered since it is probably over-exposed.
- Graphics: many parts in [Bres]. See also [Foley], [Processing].
- Control surfaces for DJ, VJ ; they are now Midi et USB.
- Architecture: post-modernism pushes to a surface architecture, along two different paths:
. walls (bearing walls) are hidden by detached decorations. (an example in Paris, a Finance ministry annex, rue Saint-Honoré, near Palais Royal).
. walls as projection surfaces (example: mega-concerts by Jean-Michel Jarre).
. [Picon] dedicates several pages, quoting as examples the giant post panels of Times Square (New York) or Shinjuku (Tokyo).
. See hypersurface, table.
A form of art, more and more digital.
- In 1989, computer aided dental prosthesis indicated by Jean Segura in Tech Images.
Surveillance. User generated content... (Don't do that, you may be sanctioned).
- This security and police application may also be used as an artistic project, such as Sven (Surveillance Video Entertainment Network) by Amy Alexander. Description in [Adams].
< From Unthought Films to Unintended Fiction, by Jean-Marc Chapoulié, ArtPress2, 5-7/2011. Just common sense, not a reflection about automated generation of art works.
- See Laura Kurgan, Lozano-Hemmer, tactical media.
Swarm [Siarry]. A form of evolutionary computing.
- as an aesthetic principle [Funck-Hellet].
< Dictionnaire des symboles. by Jean Chevalier and Alain Gheerbrand. Robert Laffont 1969.
< La question du symbolique en informatique, by Anne Nicolle, PDF on her Website.
< Fusion de données numériques et d'informations symboliques. by Isabelle Bloch and Laurence Cholvy (eds.) . A special issue of RSTI Technique et science informatiques. 7-8/2003. Hermès/Lavoisier 2003.
- More in French.
Synaesthesia (or synesthesia) .
Rich notes in Wikipedia.
- A basic difficulty in an artistic use of synesthaesia stems from the fact that it differs strongly from one person to another one. Not everybody, even French speaking, shares the perceptions Arthur Rimbaud'.
- 12 pages about synaesthetic works (digital or not ), in [Popper 2007].
- Systems art . See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systems_art , which gives some terminologic definitions.
- About vision, [Bres] notes (p.21): "The systemic approach favors the developemnt of a particular system starting with constraints on all the aspects of the system".
- See Expressive processing.
- See personal notes on this topic. This text, dated 1973, aimed to a "modern" systems theory, in the line of Forrester or Bertalanffy. But at that time, the wind had yet turned towards a "postmodern" systemics (this term was not used), far from formalisms and still more from mathematics. Let's say "French school". In the digital domain, Jean-Louis Le Moigne has been the principal actor.
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